I agree with Nneoma's suggestion that the positions of Prof Collier and Dr. Adebajo can be reconciled, especially when one thinks in terms of the short-run (immediate post-conflict era where NGO's have a great scope, as in the Congo) and the long-run (post conflict national institutional re-building era where the state has a better scope as in Liberia). Education serves national, cultural needs, and its long term development in terms of school buildings, curricula, capable teachers, etc. require the massive involvement of the state- the custodian of national values,ceteris paribus. Hence, whilst we could rely on NGO's to fill the gap (as the state is absent in post-conflict situations) and just impart "literacy", we need the state for the long term growth and development of the national human resources. This is not to say that NGOs dont have a role in the long run. They still do in even the UK, France, US or Canada.