Unfortunately a quite familiar story. Graham is right that we actually know a lot about when reform and capacity development (CD) is likely to happen - and about the often quite limited role that external partners can play in these processes which must be driven from within. And we have known it for many years. I would actually venture into saying that it is quite well-understood - but the knowledge is largely ignored. So the real issue is to figure out how to address the political economy drivers that incentivize donors and partners to continue to agree to do things that does not work. Why are donors poor at transforming lessons into changed behaviour along the lines in Anand's blog? My quick take is that it would in many cases imply that donors would have to recognize that their significance is far smaller than they would like it to be. And that is a difficult message to sell to donor country politicians and taz payers. For years, there have been substantiated calls that donors should understand the context better, apply longer time horizons and be more modest. What will make such calls be heard where it matters?