The scientific evidence on the drivers of brain development in infants is of longstanding vintage and has been publicly available for quiet some time. The additional good news is that the scientific data is robust, volume and quality of data continues to improve rapidly, measurement methods are becoming more precise and accurate and the underlying theoretical foundations are robust and deep. Relative to these benchmarks in the science of infant brain development, how robust and evidence driven is the economist conclusion and recommendation for scaling up public interventions? Why only now are economists recognizing the importance of public interventions? After all the scientific evidence relating to infant brain development has been available for quiet some time. Can you cite specific long-term data and evidence regarding the relative merits of different forms of public interventions in this area. If such evidence exists then it should be widely publicized so that citizens are energized to mandate governments to implement good public interventions. The World Bank has a longstanding history of providing economic policy advise and loans to governments in countries where childhood deficiencies are significant. It would be good if the World Bank could publicize success stories and lessons based on its own portfolio of advisory and lending activities.