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I would suggest not to leave out the important role experimentation and learning from experiences/practice, both at the 'grass-root' level in China and abroad, have played in China's success story. The Chinese government had no blueprint for reforms but rather relied a lot on experimentation, be it in bottom-up processes or top-down processes. Thus, one may argue whether transition was gradual in the sense of ex ante defined steps to a certain target. With hindsight it appears gradual, but this notion neglects the importance of testing, of provisionary regulations etc. that have been such an important ingredient of Chinese policies. Consequently, a central lesson to be learned from the Chinese model is to actively and strategically organise policy learning. This may prove to be more important than copying specific policies applied in China or anywhere else.