I agree that it is important to highlight the many positive trends in Africa - the general concern being, I believe, actually tropical Africa. Optimism is needed for many reasons, and so is realism. The relatively high GNI growth rates achieved should be reduced by the population growth of 2.6 % (average for tropical Africa)and then translated into absolute figures. For an average tropical African this means an extra 25 USD per annum.So modest is the resource base increase from which so many needs should be met. If, furthermore, we compare to an average rich country it is seen that in normal years its GNI per capita increases with a USD amount corresponding to the BNP per capita of the average tropical African country. The gap thus is widening dramatically. The challenge is huge, let no optimism conceal this.