Thanks for your comment. On the data for Africa, over 60 percent of the African population has access to a cell phone, but less than 50 percent have access to working toilets. On the policy conclusions, you are right that toilets are rival and excludable, but open defecation generates externalities for the rest of the population, so there is a case for public subsidy. However, the problem has been that the government often interprets the subsidy as giving households free toilets. Too often, these households end up using the toilets for grain storage and other purposes for which they were not intended! The successful cases I know of are when the government gave the community a set of vouchers for toilets, and asked the community to hand it out to households. Then, the community (which would have been the beneficiary of reduced open defecation) had an incentive to make sure the toilets were used for their intended purpose.