I have not had time to look through all the comments above, so perhaps somebody has already contributed my idea. It is refreshing to hear a WB person have a more realistic analysis of the situation, not simply by imagining that what ever is dominant/or different in Africa is negative, or will have negative consequences. I personally have long concluded that the population growth of Africa can be a very good thing for Africa and the world if systems can be adjusted/ developed to support sustainable resource use, knowledge and skills transfer, good governance, and equitable access to social and economic services that will then make a more productive population. That well educated, well skilled population will also be aware of environmental issues, human rights, political and civil rights, will demand accountability from governments and will have higher negotiating power in economics. With all of Africa's natural endowments, She can support her population if helped to have good mechanisms to do so. so let us think human resource development if we want to help Africa, not population growth reduction, that will come naturally as a result of human development just as it did in Europe and else where. I have far less children than my mother, because I am empowered through education and enlightenment, to choose whether to have them or not, when to have them and what I want them to be. If more Africans can take that decision, consciously, then we will say, Yes we have made it.