Having worked in Afghanistan for more than three years managing major infrastructure programs for the UN and USAid, I am adamant that after managing the spending more than 300 million in donor funds in this direction it has done little if anything to alter the economic situation in Afghanistan at all. What is has done is create a sense of self importance for the people who benefit the most, the politicians and the government workers. we create new edifices for them to badly administer government policy while most of the the appointments are done without any merit or competence. Many appointees are simple to keep the power brokers in power. If we spend a million dollars on a project, more than half of it goes out of the country to purchase equipment or materials since there is no commercial manufacturing infrastructure of any note, and this is the failing. If you look at the World Bank economic indicators for industrial growth in Afghanistan, they all point towards an expansion that is totally dependent upon the aid continuing with major growth in the service industry. Who they are servicing are of course are the aid programs. It is only when the funds are directed to assist in small to medium industries to establish that real development will take place. The rest is academic twaddle based on the idea that if they build a road to market then things will improve. It won't if there is no market at the end of the road.