What is making aid a mess is not the fragmentation of actors - in the private sector we would call this competition - but the joint approach, mainly the joint strategies. Indeed, as all donors expand the areas they are interested in, while there is often no real accountability for results, creating projects in overlapping areas is a normal result. In the private sector, donors and actors are forced to specialise in order to gain the expertise to survive competition. In de current aid world, all donors are supposed to sign up to every area of importance: this percentage to social services, another one to agriculture and to health. A donor not giving to the next fund gets a WB visit at the appropriate level of seniority. When you compare this to long term campaigns like the polio vaccination effort, you see donors and intermediaries working together, measuring results for decades. Only a few global actors are involved, with a myriad of local partners.