Thanks Johannes for this insightful piece. Indeed, those who have more than a cursory knowledge of Kenya are intrigued by this quandry. In a way, Kenya is a very "transparent" place in the sense that a large number of the massive corruption deals are unearthed, reported upon and widely discussed. Clearly,systemic impunity is not deterring bad behaviour. And yet, precisely because of all this reporting and public discussion, Kenya can seem to be more corrupt than its neighbours (particularly when measured by "perception surveys"). In any case, one way in which pressure can be brought to ensure the corrupt are punished is by empowering an informed and well organized citizenry (CSOs, professional organizations, churches, trade unions, etc) to focus like a laser beam on this missing piece. As to our new and shiny contitution, you are right that we have a right to hope. One key challenge, however, will be to build adequate oversight mechanisms over the large chunks of public resources that will now be managed at the county level. greater transparency, new technologies and citizen groups all need to play a role in this.