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Karen, Thanks for your comment and your suggestion. Table 2 does something similar to what you had in mind, I believe. In table 2, the sample is limited to marriages or unions where the woman has been in only one union and for at least 10 years in that union. By doing this I want to rule out as much as possible cases where the woman might have been infected from a previous union or before the current union. By construction, this also implies a sample of unions with older women, as you are suggesting. As can be seen in table 2, the proportion of discordant female couples decreases, but only slightly, except in Ghana and Tanzania. The proportion of discordant female couples in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, and Kenya is still around a sizeable 30 percent of HIV-infected couples. The percentage of discordant female couples in Ghana and Tanzania decreases to 19.5 and 21.9 percent, respectively, which suggests that infection before marriage might explain some, but not all, of the cases of couples where only the woman is infected. Best, Damien