...we don't know whether development in the MVs has had any effect in the surrounding areas. So, while you are correct to say that the simple before-and-after evaluations of the MVP are not sufficient to draw causal inferences about the project's success, neither are your recommended comparisons between MV sites and the surrounding areas. What would cell phone ownership in the surrounding (non-MV) areas have looked like without the MVP, for example? Maybe they would be the same, or maybe they would be worse. We don't know, and I'm not sure that we ever will. Ultimately there are limits to what we can know about the MVP's success (or lack thereof). Good work, by the way. I'm glad that you two wrote that paper, and that you continue to follow up on the deficiencies of the MVP's evaluation.