I think Shanta Devarajan analysis is flawed. If you look at South American countries you will see Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay were power houses in Soccer in an era when they were riddled with mass poverty. The footaballers in those countries had inborn talent. Training alone is not enough to turn an average footballer/runner into a world beater. Brazil, German, Spain etc are good in soccer because they have a large pool of naturaly talented footballers and Kenya is king of road running because they have a large pool of naturally talented runners.