Abeer, thanks for your comment and the information about Egypt. The one point I would make is that it's not necessarily the level of teachers' wages that is important, but how they are paid. If teachers are paid their salary whether or not they show up for work, it's easier for them to be absent. If on the other hand, they won't get paid if they fail to show up, the incentive to be absent is very different. In many countries, there are low-cost private schools, even in rural areas, where teachers get paid less than in public schools, but absenteeism is less.