Hi David, On (1), you seem to be maximizing a global social welfare function rather than the social welfare function of the country that's losing people. Surely the latter is the one that the country's government should and will use when making policy. On (3), just because something is hard to quantify doesn't mean that it should be ignored. Also, I'd like to see some statistics on the shares and ages of returning emigres. Are they coming back in numbers? If so, is it for an affordable retirement or truly to help their countries secure a more prosperous future? Nice discussing this with you.