One reason for the limited effect on business survival might be that sometimes we in the donor community seem to treat every poor person as a potential entrepreneur. Thus we give a large number of people training regardless of their future potential as entrepreneurs (which by the way is terribly difficult to establish beforehand). Perhaps the fact is that relatively few people in any given population are entrepreneurs, just like in high-income countries. So I find it not so surprising that established entrepreneurs are more likely to make use of training than those starting up. The latter often, in my experience, are rounded up and interested because they want to get out of poverty (or because we want them to) rather than rounded up because they have promising ideas. So it could very well be a targeting problem and the all so usual problem of "good intentions". So, to me, to focus on adding to the toolbox of the more or less established actual entrepreneur might be the best way to go - as suggested above (I think). What do to for the rest is perhaps for other disciplines. There is a risk in relaying a thinking that to address the problems of unemployment all you need to do is start your own business. Sometimes I feel that is what we are doing. Perhaps also our toolbox needs to be bigger. Well, now I am digressing, so I better stop. Anyway , thanks for an interesting post!