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November 2013

Seventh Migration and Development Conference, June 30-July 1 2014, Oxford University

Çağlar Özden's picture

International migration provides some of the biggest opportunities for economic growth poverty reduction and shared prosperity. As this fact has become clearer over time, academic research on various development aspects has gained momentum. Along the way, our annual Migration and Development conference, co-sponsored by the World Bank (WB) and the Agence Française de Développement (AFD), obtained a more central place. The conference was initiated in 2008 and the sixth meeting was held earlier this year in Morocco.

If you're interested in seeing the very forefront of research in this area, don’t miss the 2014 conference. It will be held at University of Oxford on June 30–July 1 and hosted by the International Migration Institute of Oxford. Full-paper submissions are due on January 5th and must be sent to migdevconf@qeh.ox.ac.uk.

Weekly Wire: the Global Forum

Kalliope Kokolis's picture

These are some of the views and reports relevant to our readers that caught our attention this week.

The Future of News from 3 Silicon Valley Executives
The Dish Daily

"In a world transformed by the Internet and overrun by tech giants, the news industry has been irrevocably changed. Some lament, but few would argue. Those on the news side of things have been vocal for some time – analyzing and brainstorming, discussing and arguing – but we’ve not often heard what those behind the flourishing tech companies have to say.

Three notable Silicon Valley figures discussed the news industry with Riptide, a project headed by John Huey, Martin Nisenholtz and Paul Sagan and published by Harvard’s Nieman Journalism Lab." READ MORE 
 

Everything is more fun in the Balkans: Technology, Civic Discourse, and Open Data

Samuel Lee's picture



Usually with a playful smile, it is often said that everything is more fun in the Balkans. History is alive. The region’s dynamic future is still being written and its inhabitants are as interesting and diverse as the intertwined architecture of different styles and cultures.

I had the privilege of delivering a closing keynote sharing early results of an Open Data Demand pilot project (currently open for consultation!) and the World Bank Group’s Open Finances experience at the Community Boost_r TechCamp held in Sarajevo from November 7-8. It was also a great opportunity to get a firsthand taste of what the civic tech scene is like across the Balkans.

The city of Sarajevo played perfect host to this hybrid conference and unconference exploring the role of data, including data for accountability and better coupling of data with technology. There was no shortage of innovation and inspiration among the thriving community of activists, development professionals, technologists, journalists, and do-gooders from every corner of the Balkans brought together by Fundacja TechSoup and Zašto ne (Bosnia & Herzegovina) in partnership with Dokukino (Serbia), and the IPKO Foundation (Kosovo).

The often (unspoken) assumptions behind the difference-in-difference estimator in practice

Jed Friedman's picture
This post is co-written with Ricardo Mora and Iliana Reggio
 
The difference-in-difference (DID) evaluation method should be very familiar to our readers – a method that infers program impact by comparing the pre- to post-intervention change in the outcome of interest for the treated group relative to a comparison group. The key assumption here is what is known as the “Parallel Paths” assumption, which posits that the average change in the comparison group represents the counterfactual change in the treatment group if there were no treatment. It is a popular method in part because the data requirements are not particularly onerous – it requires data from only two points in time – and the results are robust to any possible confounder as long as it doesn’t violate the Parallel Paths assumption. When data on several pre-treatment periods exist, researchers like to check the Parallel Paths assumption by testing for differences in the pre-treatment trends of the treatment and comparison groups. Equality of pre-treatment trends may lend confidence but this can’t directly test the identifying assumption; by construction that is untestable. Researchers also tend to explicitly model the “natural dynamics” of the outcome variable by including flexible time dummies for the control group and a parametric time trend differential between the control and the treated in the estimating specification.
 
Typically, the applied researcher’s practice of DID ends at this point. Yet a very recent working paper by Ricardo Mora and Iliana Reggio (two co-authors of this post) points out that DID-as-commonly-practiced implicitly involves other assumptions instead of  Parallel Paths, assumptions perhaps unknown to the researcher, which may influence the estimate of the treatment effect. These assumptions concern the dynamics of the outcome of interest, both before and after the introduction of treatment, and the implications of the particular dynamic specification for the Parallel Paths assumption.

What Should Illegal Logging and Illegal Fishing Have in Common?

Julian Lee's picture
Fishing off the coast of Namibia. John Hogg/World BankThe value of the fishing and aquaculture industries exceeds US$190 billion annually and an estimated 240 million people depend on marine fisheries for their jobs. There’s no doubt that oceans generate big business. And where there’s profit to be made, there are sure to be people who don’t play by the rules. As a result, an estimated 18 percent of global fishing happens illegally.

Why should this matter to people who care about development? Illegal fishing can undermine the livelihoods of poor people who depend on the ocean to make a living. The evasion of tax and royalty regimes can deprive developing countries up to hundreds of millions of dollars a year in much-needed revenues. In some regions, the rate of illegal fishing is high enough to endanger the sustainable management of a resource already stressed by overfishing.

Leveraging Financial Inclusion to Promote Economic Development in Egypt

Leveraging Financial Inclusion to Promote Economic Development in Egypt - Photo: Arne Hoel

Egyptian policymakers are facing a significant challenge: how to address acute economic challenges while managing ongoing political and social transitions. Output in major sectors of the economy (construction, trade, and tourism) remain weak while foreign direct investment (FDI), once a core tenant of Egyptian growth, reached nearly zero in the second quarter of this year. The Egyptian unemployment rate, which traditionally hovered around 9.5 percent in the years preceding the revolution, has increased to 13.2 percent in the first quarter of 2013.

Convergence in the Ease of Doing Business

Augusto Lopez-Claros's picture

Overlooking the central Kumasi marketSuppose that one were to divide the countries included in the latest Doing Business report into two groups. Call the first group (made up of some 44 countries) the “worst quartile”—that is, the countries with the costliest and most complex procedures and the weakest institutions. Call the other group the “best three quartiles.” Then let’s ask ourselves: how many days did it take to establish a business in both groups in 2005? The answer is 113 days in the worst quartile and 29 days in the best three quartile countries, meaning that in 2005 there was a gap of 84 days between the two sets. Now, let’s repeat the exercise for 2013. The worst quartile is down to 49 days and the best three quartiles is down to 16; the gap between the two has narrowed to 33 days, which is still sizable but a lot less than 84. Repeat the same exercise for time to register property and time to export a container. For property registration, the gap in 2005 was 192 days and by 2013 it has narrowed to 63. For time to export, the gap in 2005 was 32 days and in 2013 it was down to 23. (The figures are presented in the charts below. Only a small subset of the indicators has been included here, for illustrative purposes).

Green Buildings Offer Lasting Development Impact

Stephanie Miller's picture

A construction worker finishes sealing glass at a building construction site. Trinn Suwannapha / World Bank

What generates 70 percent of the greenhouse gases emitted from cities like New York, Beijing, or New Delhi? Not long ago, I might have answered “cars.” But the real culprit is buildings – our homes, offices, schools, and hospitals. Many of which use electricity, water, and fuel extremely inefficiently because of the way they were initially designed.

In fact, about 40 percent of the world’s electricity is used to cool, light and ventilate buildings, even though much more efficient technology exists.

The longevity of buildings is why we need to think much more about them at the new construction phase. Decisions about building materials, insulation, and plumbing live on for decades or longer. That’s why IFC, the private sector-focused arm of the World Bank Group, is working to help builders and developers in emerging markets lock in climate-smart choices at the early design stage.

Our new certification tool EDGE, which stands for Excellence in Design for Greater Efficiencies, was designed specifically for emerging markets, where housing needs are set to grow exponentially as a result of urbanization pressures. It is Internet-based and easy to use, offering developers a range of inexpensive design choices that might otherwise be overlooked in the rush to build.

Buildings certified by EDGE use 20 percent less energy than their peers, offering long-term emissions savings and lower utility bills – a major benefit in affordable housing.

Women and Trade in Africa: Putting a Face to the Research

Maura K. Leary's picture

This past May, I traveled to Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania to produce “Mind the Gap: Gender Equality and Trade in Africa” with a Nairobi-based film crew. As I headed off on my first official trip, I read and re-read the chapters that this film was designed to complement — all part of a fantastic new book, “Women and Trade in Africa: Realizing the Potential.”  I felt very comfortable with the facts and figures — tourism in Kenya accounts for 12.5 percent of GDP; cotton is the third largest export in Uganda; small business owners are a huge part of Tanzania’s export economy, etc. — but did not fully understand the situation we were trying to explore until I met Mary.


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