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July 2014

Sustainable Development Challenges Post 2015 Need a Multisectoral Focus

Paula Caballero's picture

For most of us, when a disaster happens in a far away place, we only get brief glimpses of the immediate aftermath and subsequent recovery efforts – often only through news media or occasionally close-by bloggers. During four years of reconstruction after the devastating tsunami that hit the Indonesian province of Aceh in 2004, few have seen the rebuilding process like those who are part of the recovery efforts.

The Multi-Donor Fund (MDF), which is managed by the World Bank with contributions and guidance from 15 other international donor partners, continues to work on the ground in Aceh and Nias. The reconstruction has been extremely successful, with more than 100,000 new houses constructed, more than 90,000 hectares of agricultural land restored and 2,500 kilometers of road built. In late 2008, the MDF held a photo competition for people involved with projects or agencies related to reconstruction. The resulting pictures are not professionally created, but they give a beautifully close and comprehensive view of the rebuilding of Aceh.


(Hover your mouse over "Notes" to see information about each photo)

Many of the pictures were featured in the Multi-Donor Fund 2008 Progress Report, which can be found at the MDF website. You can also see the photos at our Flickr page.

August 1, 2014: This Week in #SouthAsiaDev

Mary Ongwen's picture

Introduction: decompression in the development discourse
 
The US Securities and Exchange Commission is consulting on a proposal to require public companies to report the ratio of top executive compensation to the median compensation of their employees. ‘The gap in pay between chief executives and rank-and-file employees has been growing steadily, and now regulators want companies to tell investors just how wide it is,’ said the New York Times in its recent report.

Yet the essence of the SEC proposal is at odds with the way we have approached public sector pay reform in developing countries over the last twenty years or so. During that time, Bank and Fund reports have routinely focused on the ‘compression ratio’ – that is, the differential between the highest and lowest paid employees – and habitually recommended decompression. See, for instance, this IMF Technical Note which includes the compression ratio among the indicators to be used for evaluating government employment and compensation. Altering the ratio in favour of the highest earners would boost performance incentives for all, it was thought. A World Bank report for Timor Leste from 2011 is a typical example:

Bad practices in mobile learning

Michael Trucano's picture
Data on the sharing economy (Uber, Airbnb and so on) are scarce, but a recent study estimates that the revenue growth of these platforms has been dramatic. In the European Union (EU), the total revenue from the shared economy increased from around 1 billion euros in 2013 to 3.6 billion euros in 2015. While this estimate may equal just 0.2% of EU GDP, recent trends indicate a continued, rapid expansion.

This is important, as the sharing economy has the potential to bring efficiency gains and improve the welfare of many individuals in the region.

This can also generate important disruptions.

While online platforms represent a small fraction of overall incomes, the share of individuals participating in these platforms is large in many European countries. For example, roughly 1 in 3 people in France and Ireland have used a sharing economy platform, while at least 1 in 10 have in Central and Northern Europe (see figure below).

At the same time, the share of the population that has used these platforms to offer services and earn an income is also significant, reaching 10% or more in France, Latvia, and Croatia. This means that at least one out of every ten adults in these countries worked as a driver for a ride-sharing platform such as Uber, rented out a room of his or her house using a peer-to-peer rental platform such as Airbnb, or provided ICT services through an online freelancing platform such as Upwork, to name a few examples.

Can Open Data boost economic growth and prosperity?

Amparo Ballivián's picture
Follow the author on Twitter: @shomik_raj
 

One of the shiny new Ecovía buses
Listening to Juan Ayala rave about how they only let the most talented bus drivers operate the shiny new buses on the Ecovía Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, we realized how fantastic our job is. Not only do we have the privilege to help plan and implement transformational projects such as Monterrey’s first BRT line, but we actually get to see the results of our work firsthand.

One should not underestimate the importance of Ecovía, a new 30-km BRT corridor crossing Monterrey from east to west. The original goal was to create a high-speed, high-quality mass transit system that could provide rail-like performance at a fraction of the cost. If the first six weeks are any indication, Ecovía certainly has achieved that. At 30 km per hour, the average travel speed of the BRT is close to double that of regular bus lines across the city; an influential local TV host found that end-to-end travel times on the system were over an hour faster than by private car; ridership levels are higher than what government expected for this still partial roll-out (35 of the scheduled 80 vehicles are operating); and in a recent survey, 75% of the sampled riders judged the overall system to be an 8 or higher on a scale of 10.

Prospects Daily: China’s stocks post biggest monthly gain since 2012, Eurozone’s consumer price inflation slows to near 5-year low, Philippines’ central bank hikes key policy rates

Global Macroeconomics Team's picture

Financial Markets

China’s stocks rose on Thursday, sending benchmark indexes to their highest monthly gain since December 2012, amid optimism government stimulus will boost economic growth. The Shanghai Composite Index rose 0.9% to 2,201.56 at the close, the highest level since December 2012, for a monthly gain of 7.5%. Meanwhile the CSI 300 Index advanced 1.2% for a July gain of 8.6%, and the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index, or H-shares gauge, rose 0.2%, extending a rebound since a March low to a 21.0% monthly gain.

Building Trust - Jim Kim on the Role of Governance in Poverty Reduction and Shared Prosperity

Mario Marcel's picture
Jaime, con profesores que dedican sus vidas a la educación de alumnos con necesidades especiales en el Colegio de la Corporación Municipal del Campo Transitorio de Dharabi (Mumbai, India). (Photo: Marcela Gutierrez Bernal / World Bank)

El miércoles pasado se lanzó el Informe sobre el desarrollo mundial 2018: Aprender para hacer realidad la promesa de la educación. El mundo enfrenta una crisis de aprendizaje. En muchos países del mundo en desarrollo, los aprendizajes son insuficientes, las oportunidades de aprendizaje son desiguales, y el progreso es todavía muy lento. ¿Qué se necesita? Que los estudiantes lleguen a la escuela habiendo tenido una nutrición y un estímulo adecuado durante los primeros años de vida; escuelas bien administradas que generen un entorno conducente al aprendizaje; insumos adecuados para que esas escuelas operen de manera efectiva; y, lo más importante, maestros motivados y bien preparados.

Y es que hoy, en el siglo XXI, con la revolución de las comunicaciones y la tecnología, el elemento esencial para lograr un aprendizaje efectivo en el aula sigue siendo el maestro. Como se discute en el informe, la tecnología puede facilitar el proceso de aprendizaje, ayudando, por ejemplo, a que en el aula estudiantes con distintos niveles de competencia tengan el estímulo que necesitan para avanzar. Pero esto simplemente complementa a un maestro que debe de saber utilizar la tecnología. 

Can open data boost economic growth and prosperity?

Amparo Ballivián's picture
写真: Evan Blaser/Flickr
ペルーとエクアドルが抱える災害リスクの中でも特に大きな問題は、都市への人口集中と地震災害に対する脆弱性です。2007年、ペルー南部の沖合でマグニチュード8.0の地震が発生し、520人の命を奪い、数え切れないほどの建物が損壊しました。2016年にエクアドルで起きた最近の地震の犠牲者数は200人を超え、さらに多くの人が負傷しました。

もちろん、こうしたリスクは中南米の国だけに存在するわけではありません。世界有数の地震多発国である日本は、耐震性に関して他に例を見ない経験を培ってきました。国による地震リスクの管理体制の要となってきたのは交通セクターです。地震が交通インフラとその運営、乗客の安全に与えるであろう影響の大きさを考えれば、それも当然のことと言えるでしょう。

A Seismic Shift in Improving the Behaviour of Large Companies? Guest Post from Phil Bloomer

Duncan Green's picture

PhilBloomerMy former boss, Phil Bloomer is now running the Business and Human Rights Resource Centre (check out its smart new multilingual website). Here he sees some signs of hope that the debate on corporate responsibility is moving beyond trench warfare over voluntary v regulatory approaches. Fingers crossed.



‘Mind the gap’ is a refrain that any visitor to London’s Underground trains will have had drilled into their brains. In development and human rights, one of the most controversial issues is how to deal with the dangerous governance gap that has opened up between the powerful globalising forces in our economies, often led by large companies, and the often weak capacity of societies to cope with the problems and damage these forces can create.

A fortnight ago came a seismic shift in this debate. The UN Human Rights Council adopted a resolution to create an international binding treaty for transnational corporations. This comes three years after the adoption, by consensus, of the more voluntary, UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. Most observers put this major tremor down to rising frustration at the apparent glacial pace of implementation of the Guiding Principles by governments (only the UK, Netherlands and Denmark have so far agreed National Action Plans), and few companies are stepping up. The age-old, and sometimes theological, divisions between opposing panaceas of state-regulation v voluntary codes may be returning.

Weekly Wire: The Global Forum

Roxanne Bauer's picture

These are some of the views and reports relevant to our readers that caught our attention this week.


2014 Human Development Report - Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience
UNDP
As successive Human Development Reports (HDRs) have shown, most people in most countries have been doing steadily better in human development. Advances in technology, education and incomes hold ever-greater promise for longer, healthier, more secure lives. But there is also a widespread sense of precariousness in the world today—in livelihoods, in personal security, in the environment and in global politics. High achievements on critical aspects of human development, such as health and nutrition, can quickly be undermined by a natural disaster or economic slump. Theft and assault can leave people physically and psychologically impoverished. Corruption and unresponsive state institutions can leave those in need of assistance without recourse.
 

The State of the State
Foreign Affairs
The state is the most precious of human possessions,” the economist Alfred Marshall remarked in 1919, toward the end of his life, “and no care can be too great to be spent on enabling it to do its work in the best way.” For Marshall, one of the founders of modern economics and a mentor to John Maynard Keynes, this truth was self-evident. Marshall believed that the best way to solve the central paradox of capitalism -- the existence of poverty among plenty -- was to improve the quality of the state. And the best way to improve the quality of the state was to produce the best ideas. That is why Marshall read political theorists as well as economists, John Locke as well as Adam Smith, confident that studying politics might lead not only to a fuller understanding of the state but also to practical steps to improve governance.

 

For rural communities, good roads mean the world

Maria Margarita Nunez's picture
credit: Save The Children

Sarah Ruteri*, aged 14 months, is a survivor. A few months ago, I saw her admitted to the pediatric ward of Lodwar hospital in northern Kenya’s drought-affected Turkana district. Suffering from severe pneumonia, Sarah was gasping for breath – and fighting for her life. Her tiny ribcage was convulsed by a losing struggle to get air into her lungs. Doctors told her mother to expect the worst. But with a combination of oxygen therapy and intravenous antibiotics, Sarah pulled through.


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