These are questions we’ve been seeking to answer at the World Bank Group. And we’ve developed a new visualization tool, accessible through our World Integrated Trade Solution database, which allows the public to explore the quantifiable reality of GVCs.
To give you an example of how it works, let’s look at the automotive sector—a very prominent and commonly discussed GVC.
Sturgeon and Memedovic developed a methodology to break down the automotive production chain into final goods—those purchased by the consumer—and intermediate goods—those purchased by other manufacturers as inputs to be used in their own production. They identify three main GVC ‘nodes’: Automotive components (made by suppliers); engines, transmissions, and body assemblies (made by automakers); and finished motor vehicles. Table 1 shows the main exporting country within each of these nodes and its relative market share within that node.
Table 2 goes one step further. By digging into the trade data, we can identify the most important products for each GVC node, in terms of their relative weight on world trade. This also helps us, in part, to identify which products or activities along the production chain are most significant or add the most value.
Perhaps not surprisingly, the most exchanged automotive input ‘made by suppliers’ in 2014 falls under the classification HS870899—‘parts and accessories.’ Now, to better understand exactly how these parts and accessories move along the GVC, we can use our Global Trade Network tool on WITS to map all of the bilateral trade flows for HS870899. 
Companies increasingly use cloud based services and operate across national boundaries, with servers in multiple national jurisdictions. This is because users want to be able to access their data from any device, which effectively requires data and applications to be housed on a cloud-based server. The rise of mobile devices has further exacerbated consumer demand for cloud connectivity. Moreover, privacy laws vary significantly across different national jurisdictions; global companies often receive information in one country and then process it in a different country with a different regulatory framework. Thus, in a globalized world it becomes ever more challenging to ensure standards of privacy are upheld.
Concurrently, national governments seek to obtain and exploit the personal information stored on servers and personal devices for purposes of national security. At times, they compel companies to release personal data. It’s also interesting—and perhaps frightening— that open source intelligence statistical techniques are able to collect, correlate and triangulate data to identify previously anonymous information.
Claire Connelly, a journalist specialising in privacy and technology, from Sydney, Australia outlines some of the key global trends she sees unfolding around the world.
Interoperability was a trending topic at this week’s Mobile World Congress (MWC) 2016.
Getting payment products to “understand” each other, or to be “interoperable,” is a big challenge to solve if we want to expand overall digital services and financially include the 2 billion people worldwide who are currently excluded from the formal financial system.
Making it easy for people to access transaction accounts and payment services matters.
We see interoperability as a means for people worldwide to make electronic payments in a convenient, affordable, fast, seamless and secure way through a transaction account.
When payment systems are interoperable, they allow two or more proprietary platforms or even different products to interact seamlessly. Interoperability can promote competition, reduce fixed costs and enable economies of scale that help ensure the financial viability of the service and make payment services more convenient.
In my last post, I proposed that economic and social value from Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) can be improved significantly if the public sector can identify and exploit the potential to create Public to Public Partnerships (P2Ps). I believe that P2Ps can use their combined scale and power to challenge the private sector to deliver additionality over and above what the public sector can achieve within the timeline and resources available. They can create an imperative for the private sector to innovate and to use their competencies, capabilities, and capacity to contribute to a PPP and in transforming the Economic and Social Value Equation. Additionality in PPPs needs to be more than what the public sector alone can achieve.
Because many public sector organizations are still at the early stages of looking at P2Ps, I’ve compiled a series of suggestions based upon experience that interested individuals can use to explore P2P development. Public sector managers need to assess if it’s the right approach for their organizations within the context of the aspirations to deliver enhancements to the Economic and Social Value Equation.
It’s a simple yet essential idea: war and disaster are linked, and these links must be examined to improve the lives of millions of people around the world.
Alarmingly, the total number of disaster events – and the economic losses associated with those events – keep increasing. This trend has been driven by population growth, urbanization, and climate change, leading to increasing economic losses of $150-$200 billion each year, up from $50 billion in the 1980s. But here is another piece of information:
- Sustainable Communities
- Climate Change
- weather risks
- Conflict and Fragility
- Disaster Resilience
- disaster recovery
- Disaster management
- disaster risk management
- Middle East and North Africa
- Europe and Central Asia
- East Asia and Pacific
- Yemen, Republic of
- Syrian Arab Republic
- Sri Lanka
- Bosnia and Herzegovina