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February 2016

Making the invisible billion more visible: the power of digital identification

Vyjayanti T Desai's picture
There are an estimated 1.5 billion people around the world, largely in Asia and Africa, who do not have an officially recognized document to prove their identity.  In Sub-Saharan Africa, more than a third of its population faces this challenge and over 40% of births (in the 0-4 age group) are left unregistered. 
 
Having a formally recognized form of identity provides the poor and vulnerable with the opportunity to climb out of poverty. This is critical for achieving a wide range of development outcomes: from opening a bank account and paving the way for broader financial inclusion to accessing education services, tracking childhood vaccinations, and empowering women.  It can also strengthen the efficiency and effectiveness of the state in providing critical services, such as government to person (G2P) payments, and reduce unnecessary waste of resources through better targeting.  
Photos: World Bank / Authors at Flickr World Bank  


 With the advances in technology including biometrics, data management, and the ubiquity of mobile connectivity, there is an unprecedented opportunity to deliver services faster and more efficiently than ever before.  And a country like India has also shown how, with these advances, a unique identity can be done at a scale not previously possible.
 
To reach the transformational potential of digital identification, the World Bank Group launched the Identification for Development (ID4D) initiative to support progress towards identification systems using 21st century solutions.  We are shaping country priorities through technical assistance, financial support and global expertise.  At present we are engaged with approximately 20 countries – either supporting through financial and technical advice, or through our assessment to determine gaps and help develop a forward looking roadmap.    

In Bolivia, being female and Indigenous conveys multiple disadvantages

Caren Grown's picture
Florina Lopez spoke movingly about her experience of double discrimination, being both Indigenous and a woman, at the recent launch of the new World Bank Group report, Indigenous Latin America in the Twenty-First Century. Lopez belongs to the Panamanian Indigenous Guna people and has spent decades working for Indigenous movements, starting at the community level and now coordinating the regional Network of Indigenous Women's Biodiversity.

She is one of many Indigenous women in Latin America who have dedicated their lives to creating more inclusive societies. While it is important to acknowledge that not all Indigenous groups and not all women have the same experiences, the concept of intersecting identities helps explain the concept of  "additive" or "multiplied disadvantage" (or advantage). Individuals are part of multiple social structures and roles simultaneously, and these structures interact and influence experiences, relations, and outcomes. 

The intersection of gender and ethnicity, for example, can deepen the gaps in some development outcomes. Indigenous Latin America in the Twenty-first Century explains that, while Indigenous Peoples' access to services has improved significantly, services are generally not culturally adapted—so the groups they are meant to benefit do not take full advantage of them. In Bolivia, where more than 40 percent of people identify themselves as Indigenous or Afro-descendants, according to the 2012 Population and Housing Census, indigenous women face a higher risk of being excluded. Further, according to a 2014 Perception Survey on Women’s Exclusion and Discrimination, all women feel discriminated against in different aspects of their lives, with Indigenous women particularly affected.
 

How does intersectionality and discrimination play out in education and health?

Access to education in Bolivia has improved considerably in recent years. Today, overall primary schooling completion rates and secondary school enrollment rates are similar for boys and girls. Yet major gender gaps persist among Indigenous and rural students.

In urban Bolivia, females are less likely to finish secondary school than males.  In urban areas, an Indigenous female student is about half as likely to finish secondary school compared to a non-Indigenous male student. But an Indigenous rural woman is five times less likely than a non-Indigenous urban man to complete secondary school (see graph, based on Census 2012):
 


Many factors prevent girls from attaining higher levels of schooling in Bolivia, including domestic care work, early pregnancy, and the need for income.  But girls who persist in secondary and higher education face other barriers:  one in five female students aged 15 to 24 report having experienced discrimination in academic environments: 25 percent of Indigenous women versus 18 percent of non-Indigenous women.

The situation is similar in terms of access to key health services.  According to household survey data (2013), while almost all non-Indigenous women in urban Bolivia give birth with either a nurse or a doctor present, that is the case for only 6 out of 10 Indigenous women in rural Bolivia. While this may be explained in part by Indigenous women’s preferences to use traditional parteras, the difference in access rates may also in part be driven by perceived discrimination. According to the Perception Survey, 20 percent of Indigenous women report having experienced discrimination when seeking care, compared to 14 percent among non-Indigenous.

Investments in education and health shape the ability of men and women to reach their full potential, allowing them to take advantage of economic opportunities and lead productive lives. Limited access to these kinds of investments not only adversely affects an individual’s opportunities, but may have significant costs for entire communities and economies.

Inclusion must be front and center on the development agenda. More and better information—both qualitative and quantitative—is needed to highlight the persistent issue of overlapping disadvantages. This will allow us, ultimately, to do much more to expand every person’s capacity to participate fully and equally and achieve his or her potential. As Florina Lopez said earlier this month, "Without the effective participation of Indigenous women in society, it will be difficult to eradicate the poverty and extreme poverty that we live in."

We, the people, for the global bicycle momentum

Leszek J. Sibilski's picture

“Get a bicycle. You will not regret it. If you live.” - Mark Twain
 
Have you ever wondered what happened to once commonplace items such as the abacus, the slide rule, the hourglass, or the quill; not to mention, VHS recorders, CD cassette players, and more recently, address and telephone books? They all met the same fate: they were replaced by modern technological innovations such as calculators, electronic watches, ballpoint pens, and computers. And what happened to the bicycle? It has been with us for over 200 years, and by some estimates, there are more than two billion bikes in use around the world and by 2050 this number could reach five billion. Over fifty percent of the human population can ride a bike. The bicycle is a veteran and mainstay of human mobility. Even competitive riders pay respect to the utility of bicycles outside grand tours. One of them, Ted King predicted: “Bicycles have the potential to save the world. There’s so much that a bicycle can do, from an environmental standpoint, from a health standpoint, and their social impact.” 
 
Amid the recent surge in global popularity of cycling - in sport, in leisure and in urban commuting - two presenters of Italian RAI2 radio believe that the Nobel Peace Prize should go to the bicycle. The presenters of the popular Caterpillar program describe bikes as an "instrument of peace". They say the bike "is the most democratic means of transport available to humanity". Proponents have also used the example of Italian cycling champion Gino Bartali, who during World War II ferried counterfeit documents by bike to save Jews, as an example of how the cycle has aided in "liberation and resistance". Additionally, 118 Italian Members of Parliament have also officially nominated the Afghan Cycling Federation women's team for the 2016 Nobel Peace Prize. They hail the bicycle as environmental, economic, and democratic.
 
In November 2015, the European Cyclists’ Federation (ECF), in collaboration with the World Cycling Alliance (WCA), announced their commitment to the UN Sustainable Development Goals and to the UN’s Secretary General, Ban Ki-moon, who called for voluntary commitments from civil society to tackle climate change. In “Cycling Delivers on the Global Goals” the direct impact of cycling can be demonstrated on at least 11 of the 17 Global Goals. Recent research presented in “A Global High Shift Cycling Scenario” by UC Davis firmly concludes: “The results show that a world with a dramatic increase in cycling could save society $24 trillion cumulatively between 2015 and 2050, and cut CO2 emissions from urban passenger transport by nearly 11% in 2050 compared to a ‘High Shift’ scenario without a strong cycling emphasis.”
 
The global community of cycling enthusiasts celebrates, even worships, the loyalty of the freedom machine to humanity by organizing events all over the world. However, well- intentioned or -organized, all these remain out of sync with very diversified agendas. After over two centuries of stellar service to humankind, we, the people, believe that the bicycle deserves an official annual World Bicycle Day sanctioned by the United Nations, and preceded by the International Year of Bicycle Awareness and Education of Cycling for All.

Build it Better: Climate Competitive Industries and Resilience

Etienne Kechichian's picture



Broadening the focus of the climate change agenda, the global policy debate has recently acknowledged the reality that adaptation and resilience need to be at the forefront of the climate change discourse. It’s a welcome sign not just for the societies that are most affected, but also for the business communities that operate in such risk-prone situations.

The recently publication “The Global Risks Report 2016” by the World Economic Forum highlights that climate change is perceived as a top business risk. This assessment by 750 experts reviewed 29 specific global risks for both their potential impact and their likelihood over a 10-year time horizon.



Source: WEF Global Risks Report, 2016

The findings are no great surprise. The numbers on economic impacts from recent disasters provides a similar story. A slew of recent natural disasters has caused severe economic damage, with ripple effects affecting many other aspects of society and the economy.

The 2011 floods in Thailand caused a loss of US$45.7 billion in total damage and loss – approximately 5 percent of GDP, of which $32 billion can be attributed to losses in manufacturing.  Floods in Chennai in December 2015 caused a total of $2.2 billion in losses in the automotive sector and severely disrupted India’s burgeoning ICT sector. Since those floods, Ford, Daimler, Apollo Tyres, Renault-Nissan, BMW and Hyundai Motors have all halted production in India. An additional $300 million loss is expected among MSMEs. The 2014 floods in the Balkans affected 19 percent of manufacturing units in Serbia alone. The Serbian manufacturing sector faced $77 million in damages and $89 million in overall economic losses, coupled with a total of $95 million for the costs of recovery and reconstruction.

The number of continuing climate-related disasters is growing. Other countries that have been able, thus far, to avoid climate disaster are still at risk. In Vietnam’s Ho Ci Minh City, 61 percent of urban land use and 67 percent of industrial land use is expected to be flooded by 2050 if proposed flood-control measures are not implemented. In addition, 50 percent of industrial zones (IZs) are at risk of flooding due to extreme events, even if the proposed flood-control measures are in place. An additional 20 percent of IZs are located within 1 kilometer of areas likely to suffer inundation. 

How do we measure impacts of refugees and IDPs on host countries and host communities?

Kirsten Schuettler's picture

Nearly 60 million persons were forcibly displaced worldwide due to conflict and persecution at the end of 2014—the highest number since World War II. Forced displacement is not only a humanitarian issue, but also has important economic, social, political, and environmental impacts on the places of origin and destination. The development impacts of forced displacement, however, remain poorly understood. There is very limited work to date on the socioeconomic impact of refugees on host and regional economies. Social scientists have largely neglected these important policy and conceptual challenges, in contrast to the countless qualitative studies on refugee livelihoods. As the number of protracted displacement situations is increasing, the lack of rigorous impact assessments is a major gap that needs to be filled. Recently, a number of calls for proposals on the topic have been issued and case studies have been undertaken by the World Bank, UNHCR, independent researchers, and other actors. Efforts have also been made to develop a coherent methodology on how to measure the impacts of forced displacement.

Partnership for universal and affordable access to internet

Pierre Guislain's picture
A World Bank Group delegation is attending the Mobile World Congress, the world’s largest annual gathering of the telecommunications and mobile industry.  This year we take with us the messages of the World Development Report 2016: Digital technologies have spread rapidly in much of the world. In many instances, digital technologies have boosted growth, expanded opportunities, and improved service delivery. But digital dividends—that is, the broader development benefits from using these technologies—have lagged behind.
Photo: Arne Hoel / World Bank


The industry representatives, government officials, and other participants in Barcelona are all convinced of the importance of the internet and mobile to improve the lives and prospects of people around the world. But many outside our technophile world do not share this view. They do not see how phone or internet connections relate to poverty reduction.

In developing countries, the typical challenge is not to convince the Minister of ICT, but rather the Ministers of Economy and Finance and the development partners of the importance of a technology strategy. Few international financial institutions or donor agencies focus their resources on the digital economy or ICT. Over the last ten years official development assistance from OECD members (ODA) to the communication technologies sector has hovered around a low 0.5% of total ODA.

A widely held view is that the private sector can take care of financing needs. Yet, the ITU has estimated the bill to bring the entire world online by the year 2020 at around US$500 billion. And the private sector is unable, or unwilling, to provide, unassisted, these huge sums of investment.

In many developing countries, especially small countries, landlocked and fragile states, as well as rural areas, the private sector views financial and operating risks as too high, in particular in view of market size.  In these frontier markets, the private sector will only take the lead in expanding connectivity if governments establishes a conducive investment climate and offers risk sharing, investment sharing and other innovative business models.  One such business model is the guaranteed prepurchase by government of connectivity capacity to meet the future needs of public services, including as local government, citizen outreach, school, health and agricultural extension services.

Quote of the Week: Janan Ganesh

Sina Odugbemi's picture

Occupy movement"Playing on people's fears is not just effective it is also right. Fear is a respectable emotion that is hard-wired into us as a design feature, not a glitch. We are meant to feel it."

- Janan Ganesh, the principal political columnist for the Financial Times. Previously, he was a political correspondent for The Economist. He regularly appears on BBC1's Sunday Politics television show, and he wrote a biography of George Osborne, the UK chancellor.
 

Chart: Women Earn More in Male-Dominated Jobs

Tariq Khokhar's picture

A recent study in Uganda found that women in female-dominated sectors earned less than half what men did in male-dominated sectors. But women who "crossed over" to male-dominated sectors such as metalwork and carpentry earned almost as much as men. Read more about "Breaking The Gender Earnings Gap" 
 


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