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September 2016

Chart: What are the primary fuel sources for major industries?

Erin Scronce's picture

A new report from the World Bank Group in collaboration with CLASP and Carbon Trust, A Greener Path to Competitiveness, finds that industry has a large role to play in tackling climate change with huge untapped energy saving potential.

The report highlights the highest carbon-emitting sectors in the world’s economy: the production of iron and steel, aluminum, chemicals and cement. These industries continue to rely heavily on traditional fuel sources such as coal, natural gas and oil. There are significant opportunities to reduce these emissions, by using new technologies or retrofitting older plants to make production greener. Without urgent action, there is a danger that climate change targets set by the 195 signatories to the Paris Agreement will not be met.

Read more about how industries can find a greener path to competitiveness

Qat trade in Yemen: flourishing despite a falling economy

Ebrahim Al-Harazi's picture
 Oleg Znamenskiy l Shutterstock.com

It's been fifteen months since war started in Yemen and when I look at the painful reality that more than 21 million Yemenis are in dire need of humanitarian assistance, and more than half the population faces severe food insecurity - besides the millions out of work and countless more displaced - I wonder how it can be that the demand for Qat remains so high. 

Where are the gaps in the way we campaign?

Duncan Green's picture

The summer is a time for relaxed chats in my Brixton office. This week it was with a seasoned NGO campaigner who’s been on a break and wondering about re-entry into the UK/global development and environment campaign scene at the research-y end. Where are the gaps and potential niches that a bright, reflective, experienced campaigner-turned-researcher could help to fill? Here’s a few that came up, inevitably influenced by How Change Happens and attendant reading.

Implementation Gaps: A lot of successful campaigning targets the gap between policy and practice – what the government or the law has said vs. what is happening in reality. It may not have the intellectual appeal of starting with a clean sheet and saying ‘if I ruled the world, I would do X’, but the chances of getting somewhere are much higher. So how about a guide to IGap campaigning – how to identify them, work out which ones are the most promising, case studies of success, questions to ask etc?

Positive Deviance: I’m getting increasingly obsessed with this as a huge potential addition to the development repertoire. Instead of jumping in and opening a project or campaign, start by looking for the positive outliers that already exist on any given issue. Go and study them, and then use social learning to spread the message. The outsider acts as a facilitator, not a ‘doer/intervenor’. But all the positive deviance examples I’ve seen refer to programming – tackling on-the-ground problems like child malnutrition in Vietnam. What would a PD-based campaign look like? Go out and identify existing positive outliers on tax evasion, respect for human rights, or smallholders in value chains, then build a campaign to scale them up?

Weekly wire: The global forum

Roxanne Bauer's picture
World of NewsThese are some of the views and reports relevant to our readers that caught our attention this week.
 

How does political context shape education reforms and their success? Lessons from the Development Progress project
ODI

Achieving Sustainable Development Goal 4 – ‘Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all’ – is one of the most important and challenging tasks in international development. In order to fulfil it, we require a better understanding of why progress and the impact of interventions varies so widely by context. One striking gap in our knowledge here is a lack of analysis as to how education systems interact with political contexts that they operate in. This report addresses this gap by drawing on evidence from eight education-focused country case studies conducted by ODI’s Development Progress project and applying political settlements analysis to explore how political context can shape opportunities and barriers for achieving progress in education access and learning outcomes.

Combining satellite imagery and machine learning to predict poverty
Science

Reliable data on economic livelihoods remain scarce in the developing world, hampering efforts to study these outcomes and to design policies that improve them. Here we demonstrate an accurate, inexpensive, and scalable method for estimating consumption expenditure and asset wealth from high-resolution satellite imagery. Using survey and satellite data from five African countries—Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, and Rwanda—we show how a convolutional neural network can be trained to identify image features that can explain up to 75% of the variation in local-level economic outcomes. Our method, which requires only publicly available data, could transform efforts to track and target poverty in developing countries. It also demonstrates how powerful machine learning techniques can be applied in a setting with limited training data, suggesting broad potential application across many scientific domains. Data imagery of the report is available on the project website.
 

Weekly Links September 1: Entrepreneurship, Co-authoring, results-free review, and more…

David McKenzie's picture
  • Interview with Erik Hurst.  He discusses entrepreneurship “Most small businesses are plumbers and dry cleaners and local shopkeepers and house painters. These are great and important occupations, but empirically essentially none of them grow. They start small and stay small well into their life cycle…And when you ask them if they want to be big over time, they say no. That's not their ambition. This is important because a lot of our models assume businesses want to grow”
  • Debraj Ray and Arthur Robson propose randomizing the order of co-authors, noting that “Debraj had just been enthusiastically recommended a “wonderful paper” by Banerjee et al, on which he was a co-author” and beyond blogging about it, even have written a theory paper on the idea.
  • The Monkey Cage has a great set of Q&As with authors, special issue editors, a reviewer, and the journal editors of their experiences when the journal Comparative Political Studies published a pilot “results-free review” special issue in which authors submitted manuscripts without showing the results. I found this point from the reviewer useful “It is worth noting that we already do a lot of results-free reviewing. Anyone assessing grant proposals or sitting on a committee giving out fellowship money must take a stand on which research sounds more or less promising without knowing exactly what the results of the research will be. In advising students, we similarly must react to their initial ideas for dissertations or theses without knowing the results.”….but also found interesting that the journal’s editors were the most pessimistic of the lot about the process, discussing the costs of the process and noting that they are unlikely to repeat the results-free approach to reviewing and publishing.
  • Time to throw out the HDI and other “mash-up indices”? Jones and Klenow have a nice paper in the AER showing how to aggregate consumption, life expectancy, leisure and inequality into an overall welfare metric – Western Europe looks much closer to the US on this metric than GDP, while East Asian tigers and developing countries look further away – and countries like South Africa and Botswana have welfare levels less than 5% of those in the U.S.

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