I get stirred up by all types of governance data, so in honor of the International Day for Universal Access to Information, I though I’d highlight a few efforts to measure access to information. Information on access to information, if you will.
The social, political, and economic transition of countries across Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia over the last three decades has been a long and arduous process, and many challenges remain. Among them, an imminent concern is the seismic threat faced by certain housing typologies that are believed to have outlived their design lifespan, and suffer from serious deterioration and disinvestment.
Within a century, Japan would become the world’s second largest economy. Its growth has been fueled by cities such as Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka, and Kobe. Japanese cities can offer a myriad of lessons to their counterparts in developing countries.
Japanese cities are also at the forefront of dealing with some of the world’s most pressing challenges. For example, cities like Osaka and Toyama have developed a number of tools to address the social issues caused by rapid aging. Most developed and developing cities in the world will face similar challenges in the years to come. Providing a platform where these cities can learn from the experience of Japanese cities may lead to significant development impact.
Supported by a partnership between the World Bank and Japan, the Tokyo Development Learning Center (TDLC) does just that.
This blog post was originally published on Project Syndicate.
Today, only 30% of the world’s population has legally registered rights to their land and home, with the poor and politically marginalized especially likely to suffer from insecure land tenure. Unless this changes, the 2015 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals will be impossible to achieve.
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will be impossible to achieve.Unless this changes, the
Tenure arrangements may be based both on official laws and policies, and on informal customs. If those arrangements are secure, users of land have an incentive not just to implement best practices for their use of it (paying attention to, say, environmental impacts), but also to invest more.
Beautiful, newly-erected houses in an otherwise deserted place. There couldn’t be a better image for the effects of Romanian emigration, which the World Bank has analyzed in a recently published report.
If you are wondering who owns the ghost houses, you only have to look at the sheer number of Romanians living and working abroad - between 3 and 5 million according to some estimates or 3.6 million, according to the UN (2017). Of these, 2.7 million are of working age, equivalent to a staggering 20.6 percent of Romania’s working age population!
[[avp asset="/content/dam/videos/backup/2018/jun-89/tatiana_proskuryakova_on_new_country_partnership_framework_for_romania_basic_-_small.flv"]]/content/dam/videos/backup/2018/jun-89/tatiana_proskuryakova_on_new_country_partnership_framework_for_romania_basic_-_small.flv[[/avp]]When I visited Iasi, in October 2017, the World Bank had just started preparing its Systematic Country Diagnostic for Romania (SCD) – a comprehensive economic analysis we produce every 4-5 years, designed to give us a better understanding of both the main challenges faced by a country and the pathways towards more sustainable growth.
In Iasi, as in many other Romanian cities, I heard firsthand what I had been experiencing since first coming to the country four months earlier: Romania has a diverse set of challenges and a unique pathway towards development – from better roads, to stronger institutions, and an improved business climate.
Driving around Romania, one sees two countries: one urban, dynamic, and integrated with the EU; the other rural, poor and isolated. Bucharest is a bustling metropolis with thriving modern services and a higher income per capita than the average for the European Union.
This was not always the case.
More and more courts are going digital. But does this improve judicial performance?
Legal literature on ‘e-justice’ seems to think so. So too does the World Development Report, ‘Digital Dividends,’ which highlights the potential for ICT to improve the transparency and quality of government service delivery.
As electronic court reporting is one key aspect of this trend, we want to take the opportunity to look at the pros and cons of improving judicial performance in different contexts.
There are the booming megacities such as Tokyo, Mumbai, and Nairobi. Then there are cities that are declining in population, such as Detroit.
In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where we recently conducted a study on urban growth trends, we found unique demographic patterns affecting the urbanization process in the region.
For example, the region has had fertility rates below replacement levels for more than two decades, and most countries in the region have negative net migration rates.
This signifies that the population of most countries in the region is either growing very slowly or declining, and in some countries urban population has started to decline.
What does this mean for cities?
Resulting from this competition, we find that most of the cities in the region are shrinking while population growth is increasingly concentrated in a few cities. Per our estimates, 61% of the region’s cities shrank between 2000 and 2010, losing on average 11% of their population.
This scale of city population decline is unprecedented.