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East Asia and Pacific

How to Create Jobs for Young People

Ravi Kumar's picture

Ask one of the millions of youth in Nairobi or New Delhi about their concerns for the future, and more than likely the response will be that he or she is worried about finding a job.

There are more than 1.2 billion young people between the ages of 15 and 24 in the world. Seventy-five million of them are unemployed, according to the International Labor Organization (ILO).

Disrupting Low-level Political Equilibria

Shanta Devarajan's picture

Absentee teachers, negligent doctors, high transport costs, missing fertilizers, and elite-captured industrial policy all stand in the way of poor people’s escaping poverty.  While the proximate reason for these obstacles may be a lack of resources or an erroneous policy, the underlying reason is politics. Lawmakers meet during a session of Parliament in Accra

- In many developing countries, teachers run the political campaigns of local politicians, in return for which they are given jobs from which they can be absent.  The situation can be described as an equilibrium, where the candidate gets elected and re-elected, and teachers continue to be absent.  The losers are the poor children who aren’t getting an education.  The equilibrium has no intrinsic force for change, especially if, as in Uttar Pradesh, India, 17 percent of the legislature are teachers.

 - High transport costs in Africa are due not to poor-quality roads (vehicle operating costs are comparable to those in France) but to high prices charged by trucking companies, who enjoy monopoly power thanks to regulations that prohibit entry into the trucking industry.  High transport prices and monopoly trucking profits are an equilibrium. In one country, the President’s brother owns the trucking company, so prospects for deregulation there are grim.

- Several countries subsidize fertilizer, sometimes to the tune of several percentage points of GDP, only to find that it fails to reach poor farmers.  Thinking that the problem is the public distribution system, some governments have tried to use the market to allocate fertilizer, by giving farmers vouchers that they can redeem with private sellers.  A scheme in Tanzania found that 60 percent of the vouchers went to households of elected officials. When subsidies are captured to this extent by political elites, their reform will be resisted—another equilibrium.

We’re Getting Old: Let’s Celebrate with a Paradigm Change!

Margaret Arnold's picture

Happy International Day of Older Persons! The United Nations established this day of observance in 1990 as a way to raise awareness about issues affecting the elderly and to appreciate the contributions that older people make to society. If we are not there already, we will all eventually be joining the growing global population of elders.  According to the World Health Organization, the proportion of the global population aged 60 and up will double from 11 percent in 2006 to 22 percent by 2050. 

The World Bank Social Develpment department’s upcoming report. Inclusion Matters: The Foundation for Shared Prosperity, details the impacts of social exclusion on people’s well-being and on society overall. Unfortunately, aging is typically viewed as decline, and our elders are often marginalized both socially and physically (in nursing homes or other institutions). 

My own eyes were opened to this about a year ago, when I met Emi Kiyota, founder and president of Ibasho, an NGO that develops simple and low-cost solutions to integrate elders into their communities. Having worked on disasters and resilience for some time, I have always advocated for empowering women and marginalized groups to drive their recovery process. But I had to admit that I still listed older people as a “vulnerable group” to be cared for. After learning about Ibasho’s work, I invited Emi to share her experience with World Bank staff. She provided a beautiful example of the benefits of providing opportunities for older people to actively take part in disaster recovery and community development.

Why Young People Are Ready to Fight Climate Change

Ravi Kumar's picture

It seems that the mindset of my friends roughly reflects the views of youth worldwide. From Nepal to the United States, young people are increasingly mindful of how their behavior impacts the planet.

Why Young People Are Ready to Fight Climate Change

World Bank Fellowships for Young Africans and Diasporans

Maleele Choongo's picture
World Bank Group Fellowship Program for Ph.D. Students of African Descent
The World Bank is launching its Africa Fellowship Program and offering 6-month fellowships to young Africans and African Diasporans currently enrolled in post-graduate programs on the continent. The Bank is calling for applications from interested students who are passionate about development in Africa and meet the following criteria:
  • Be African or of African descent
  • Be within one or two years of completing their Ph.D.
  • Be enrolled in an academic institution and returning to university after the program
  • Be below 32 years of age
  • Have an excellent command of English (both written and verbal)
  • Possess strong quantitative and analytical skills

Participation in the program may start at any time during the year. Fellows receive round-trip air travel to Washington, D.C. from their university, and remuneration during their fellowship. Throughout their Fellowship, students will be able to use their access to World Bank facilities, information and staff to enhance their doctoral research. After completing six months of the fellowship, high performers will be offered an additional six months to continue their work with the Bank.

Shanghai: Paving the Way for Greener Cities

Jim Yong Kim's picture

SHANGHAI, China, Sept. 17 -- I'm standing in front of a building at Linkong International Garden that has solar panels on the outer walls and rooftops, geothermal heat pumps, and online energy management. This is part of the front line of the fight against climate change, and Shanghai is helping to lead the way in making sure rapid urbanization involves a wide array of clean technologies. Watch the video to learn more.

Celebrating Success, Ongoing Challenges, and Opportunities that face the Montreal Protocol

Karin Shepardson's picture

New air conditioning units manufactured in a factory.

Today (September 16) is International Ozone Day. This day offers the international community the opportunity to laud the achievements of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Since 1987, the Protocol has worked to reduce the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS), man-made industrial chemicals that damage the earth’s ozone layer.

Yet, as has become clear over the past few years, International Ozone Day is about more than just successful ozone layer protection. Given that many substances that deplete the ozone layer also have global warming potential (GWP), the transition to the use of substances with lower or no GWP has contributed important climate co-benefits over the years. As a result, the Protocol’s agenda has increasingly focused on cross-cutting themes linked with climate mitigation and energy efficiency. From both ozone and climate perspectives, the Protocol is widely recognized as a success.

The World Bank–China Montreal Protocol partnership is a testament to this success. Over the past two decades, it has phased-out more than 219,000 tons of ozone depleting substances from sectors as varied as refrigeration, air-conditioning, foam manufacturing, aerosol production, and fire extinguishing. Since these substances have GWP, the phase-out also avoided the equivalent of 885 million tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) or having the effect of taking 184 million cars off the roads.

Some new experiments trying to help more people emigrate from the Philippines

David McKenzie's picture
Moving from a developing to a developed country results in immediate large increases in income for the migrants, with gains that far exceed those of any other development policy intervention (e.g. Clemens et al 2008; McKenzie et al. 2010, Gibson and McKenzie, forthcoming).

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