Latin America & Caribbean
The blog draws on joint ongoing and published work with several IMF staff, including Leo Bonato, Aliona Cebotari, Julian Chow, Alejandro Guerson, Franz Loyola, Sònia Muñoz, Uma Ramakrishnan, Ippei Shibata, Krishna Srinivasan and Karim Youssef.
Five years since its launch, the key messages of the World Development Report on Risk and Opportunity (WDR 2014) remain as pertinent as they were back then. WDR 2014 argued that risk management can be a powerful instrument for development, as mismanaged risks can destroy lives, assets, and economic and social stability, with the poor often hit the hardest. Managing risk plays an important role in increasing resilience to adverse shocks. It needs to combine the capacity to prepare for risk with the ability to cope afterward, considering how upfront costs of preparation compare with its potential benefits.
The launch of the Human Capital Project has galvanized global action to close human capital gaps, and has highlighted the importance of investments in the knowledge, skills, and health that people accumulate throughout their lives, to realize their potential as productive members of society.
Improving both the quantity and quality of education is pivotal to empowering young people to fulfill their potential. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education is critical not only for fulfilling the needs of the future workforce, but also for producing researchers and innovators who can help to solve intractable challenges.
The underrepresentation of women and girls in STEM gets a lot of attention, but the data on access to, and quality of, education shows that the story is more nuanced.
At primary school level globally, there is gender parity in both enrollment and completion–a remarkable achievement of recent times. Gender gaps emerge in a number of low-income countries, mostly in Sub-Saharan Africa, and in some Latin American countries there are ‘reverse’ gender gaps (with boys less likely to attend or complete primary school). Overall, gender gaps (where they exist) are modest in comparison to the gaps between rich and low-income countries.
When it comes to academic performance, girls often do as well as, or better than, boys in science and mathematics.
In primary schools, there are no gender differences in science achievement in more than half of the 47 countries where performance is measured (Figure 1). Girls score higher than boys in 26 percent of the countries. The difference in achievement is almost three-times higher when girls score more than boys compared to when boys score more than girls. Results for mathematics achievement are similar. There are no gender differences in about half of the countries with data, but boys score better than girls in 37 percent of the countries.
Figure 1: Primary-school girls perform as well as boys in science and mathematics
This is a guest blog. The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the World Bank.
Illicit trade in tobacco products undermines global tobacco prevention and control interventions, particularly with respect to tobacco tax policy. From a public health perspective, illicit trade weakens the effect of tobacco excise taxes on tobacco consumption - and consequently on preventable morbidity and mortality - by increasing the affordability, attractiveness, and/or availability of tobacco products. Furthermore, tobacco illicit trade often depends on and can contribute to weakened governance.
- Antigua and Barbuda
- Virgin Islands, British
- St. Kitts and Nevis
- St. Lucia
- St. Vincent and the Grenadines
- South Africa
- Trinidad and Tobago
- United Kingdom
- East Asia and Pacific
- Latin America & Caribbean
- South Asia
- Europe and Central Asia
As recently as 2017, cargo truck drivers bringing shipments of goods across the border of Guatemala and Honduras often brought along one unexpected item: a hammock. This is because clearing customs and traveling one kilometer between the two countries could take up to 10 hours. While waiting in line, drivers would need to take a break.
Despite tremendous progress in getting children into the classroom, we are experiencing a global learning crisis, where a large share of children complete primary school lacking even basic reading, writing, and arithmetic skills. What explains this phenomenon? To answer this question, consider the following examples of classrooms that are unlikely to put students on a path to success.
A few weeks ago, we had the opportunity to visit the "Federico Boquín" water treatment plant and dam in Tegucigalpa, one of the main sources of water supply for the Honduran capital. As we walked beside the local Mayor, "Tito" Asfura, who accompanied us during the visit, we discussed the relevance of this resource.
From Canada to Kenya, nearly every country struggles to provide housing for all its residents. It’s a goal that has become a moving target: Migration – both rural-to-urban and cross-border – is placing mounting pressure on cities to house their newcomers.
Three million people move to urban areas every week, and
As markets change fast, governments must be ever vigilant that policies don’t become obsolescent or even harmful because their details have become out of date. Even well-designed housing programs require adjustments.