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South Asia

July 18, 2014: This Week in #SouthAsiaDev

Mary Ongwen's picture
We've rounded up 22 tweets, posts, links, and +1's on South Asia-related development news, innovation and social good that caught our eye this week. Countries included: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal

Education as if Economics Mattered

Shanta Devarajan's picture

Children outside school. Bangladesh Education in developing countries is facing problems at all levels:

At the primary level, despite gains in enrollment, the quality is appallingly low.  In Tanzania and India, some 20-30 percent of students in 6th grade could not read at the 2nd grade level. Not surprising since in these countries, teachers in public primary schools are absent 25 percent of the time.  When present, they are in-class teaching only 20 percent of the time.

At the secondary level, the performance of students from the Middle East and North Africa  in international tests such as TIMS is significantly below the developing country average.

At the tertiary level, universities are chronically underfunded and not training students for jobs that the market is demanding - reminiscent of the Woody Allen line, "The food in this restaurant is terrible and the portions are too small."

Jogi for President? Lessons for Policy Makers from German Football

Wolfgang Fengler's picture

Football, the beautiful game, galvanizes people from young to old and North to South in a way that no other sport or entertainment can match. Last Sunday’s final was the most watched event in human history with an estimated 1 billion viewers (many of which, in South and East Asia, tuned in well into the night). What we experienced over the past four weeks has been described by some as the closest thing to a world religion: everybody watches it and worships it; everyone has an opinion and many believe that winning the World Cup is one of the greatest achievements a country can aspire to. No wonder that even the Popes seem to care. John-Paul II once pointedly said that “amongst all unimportant subjects, football is by far the most important.”

São Paulo and Mumbai: Improving Mass Transit in Two BRIC Megacities

Jorge Rebelo's picture
Mumbai and São Paulo are two mega metropolitan regions (MMR and SPMR) in the BRICs with about 20 million inhabitants each. They are the economic engines of their respective countries and act as a magnet for rural, low-income populations seeking employment opportunities, growing at a rate that puts tremendous pressure on their transport infrastructure and other public utilities.

As population and income rise, car and motorcycle ownership quickly increased in both megacities while mass transit is not developing fast enough, with serious consequences on traffic congestion, accidents and pollution. São Paulo has 150km+ traffic queues daily and losses of productivity, wasted fuel, health impacts and accidents estimated at around 2% of Brazil’s GDP in 2013, with three fatal deaths daily in motorcycle accidents alone. Mumbai, in addition to all-day road traffic jams, have an astounding six deaths daily from riders hanging and falling from packed trains which circulate with open doors to avoid reducing carrying capacity. The city comes to a standstill when the rail right-of-way is flooded by heavy monsoon rains. 

Access to jobs and basic services in both mega-cities is extremely difficult – particularly for the poor, who often live far from major employment centers. The two cities need to act quickly and take drastic measures to improve mobility and access... But this is easier said than done: expanding the transport infrastructure in these megacities requires careful planning, massive investment,  and may also involve relocating large numbers of people and businesses.

Looking for new ways to serve Muslim microfinance clients

Mayada El-Zoghbi's picture
“To alleviate poverty in Pakistan, we have to focus on the farmers,” says Farida Tariq, founder and chief executive officer of Wasil Foundation, a microfinance institution. “But many farmers will not opt for interest-based lending because of religious reasons.”
 
To address this gap, Wasil started offering a Sharia-compliant microfinance package aimed specifically at smallholder farmers.
 
Wasil Foundation: Islamic Financing to Farmers

Wasil is an example of how microfinance and Islamic finance can be successfully combined.
 
An estimated 650 million Muslims live on less than $2 a day. Examples like Wasil show that Islamic microfinance can play a key role in bringing the poor into the financial mainstream in a way that doesn’t force them to choose between their religious practices and their wallets.

But despite an impressive increase in the number of financial service providers that offer Sharia-compliant microfinance products in Muslim countries, Islamic microfinance is still limited to a few countries. The range of offerings is narrow as well – most are largely focused on the cost-plus-markup product known as murabaha, which is geared toward asset purchases. 

Can We Build Dhaka out of Traffic Congestion?

Ke Fang's picture


Traffic in Dhaka. Ismail Ferdous/World Bank

Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, has been dubbed as “the traffic capital of the world” because of its chaotic traffic and frequent traffic jams. Some say Dhaka needs more roads, because only 7% of land is covered by roads in Dhaka, while in many developed capital cities it is more than 20%. That argument may hold some water.
 
For many years, many cities in the world did try to build more roads to relief traffic jams after motorization took place. However, no city has been able to build itself out of congestion. In fact, allocating more urban land to roads means you have to reduce the portion of land allocated for other urban functions, such as housing, industrial, commercial and entertainment.  What has also been widely recognized is that building more roads does NOT reduce traffic congestion. It would actually induce more motorized traffic and thus create more traffic congestion.

July 11, 2014: This Week in #SouthAsiaDev

Mary Ongwen's picture
We've rounded up 19 tweets, posts, links, and +1's on South Asia-related development news, innovation and social good that caught our eye this week. Countries included: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal

Taking Youth Development to the Digital Age

Tashiya de Mel's picture

sri lankan youth

Nearly a quarter of the world’s population today is made up of young people between the ages of 10-24 years. How can young people more effectively voice their opinions and ensure they are heard?
 
UNFPA’s mandate states that a safe passage from adolescence into adulthood is the right of every child. This right can only be fulfilled if focused investments are made to create opportunities to help them reach their full potential. This year’s theme for World Population Day, “Investing in young people” should be used to increase awareness and drive home this point.
 
In Sri Lanka, 15.6% of the total population is aged between 15- 24 years. Statistics show that this generation of youth is the most inter-connected in the world’s history. 61% of young people today possess mobile phones in Sri Lanka and this number is continuing to rise. ICT is changing the way the youth communicate and how they access knowledge and share resources.

How Can We Bridge Nutrition and Rural Development in Sri Lanka?

Seenithamby Manoharan's picture



A few years ago, I met a woman in Ampara, who receives benefits from the Re-awakening Project that I manage which provides financial support to those rebuilding their lives in the north and east. Through tireless efforts and support by the project, she’s able to make a steady income from selling produce from her garden and milk from her own cows. I was stunned.

However, she does not provide her children with the nutritious milk and vegetables she grows, purchasing powered milk instead. To empower residents with more knowledge, public health staff started with education, encouraging parents to give their children more milk and teaching children the importance of eating more fruits and vegetables and even gardening skills. To allow for more milk to be collected and last longer for the children, new cows brought in through the project produce 14 liters of milk a day compared to 4 liters before. In addition, we supported a milk cooling facility with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

Cycling Backwards to Policy Victory

Willy McCourt's picture

Nick Manning’s two recent blogs (here and here) raise an important issue. On the one hand, people interested in development have big ambitions. We want not just more, but dramatically more people to be educated, healthy and prosperous, to name only three good things. If we are lucky enough to have some influence over governments and development agencies, we might be tempted to work from the top down to get what we want, turning those ambitions into public policies and programs, and rolling them out by the yard like so much cheap office carpet. 
 
But on the other hand, the same human values that make us want those things make many of us sympathize with the bottom-up tradition that takes individual humans or small communities as its starting point. We know how a state planning juggernaut led to the terrible famines in the Soviet Union in the 30s and China in the late 50s.  We know the horrors that followed Year Zero in Cambodia.  Schumacher’s Small is Beautiful and James Scott’s Seeing Like A State are touchstone texts.  Likewise, some of us have an instinctive preference for ‘searchers’ over ‘planners’, ‘positive deviance’ and ‘problem-driven iterative adaptation’.


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