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Ao longo das últimas décadas, as Parcerias Público Privadas (PPP) têm sido utilizadas para criar transporte, energia, telecomunicação e diversas outras infraestructuras em todo o mundo. Cadeias de valor foram estabelecidas para fomentar o crescimento nesses sectores e criar experiências significativas. Um sector amplamente ignorado para fins de investimentos em PPP é o sector do turismo.
Em 2016, viagens e turismo movimentaram USD 7,6 biliões (10,2% do produto interno bruto global) e geraram cerca de 292 milhões de empregos em todo o mundo. O sector do turismo é também aquele que mais contribui para financiar áreas protegidas, como por exemplo os parques nacionais.
The World Region
Why digitize public procurement?
Many countries have an opportunity to digitally transform public procurement systems to achieve enhanced efficiency, accountability, transparency, and participation of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Digitally transforming public procurement would also accelerate national development objectives, such as enhancing public service delivery, developing human capital and the private sector, and gender empowerment.
Much has been written on the escalation of the trade dispute. What hasn’t been discussed is what will be the impact on developing nations who rely on trade as an engine of economic growth for ending poverty.
As tariffs are beginning to be imposed, my team analyzed the impact of these new tariffs and the potential for tariff escalation in developing countries in a new World Bank working document. We found that the new trade tariffs will depress bilateral trade, disrupt global supply chains, and increase demand for substitutes from developing countries.
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Over the last few decades, Public-Private-Partnerships (PPPs) have been used to build transportation, energy, telecommunications, and other infrastructure throughout the world. Value chains were established to foster growth in these sectors and significant experiences gained. A sector largely overlooked for PPP investments is the tourism sector.
In 2016, travel and tourism generated $7.6 trillion (10.2 percent of global gross domestic product) and an estimated 292 million jobs globally. The tourism sector is also the largest market-based contributor to finance protected areas such as national parks. In some countries, tourism depends almost exclusively on natural systems, often with wildlife as the primary attraction.
Our starting point is to deal with what we know – and the biggest challenge that the future of work faces – and has faced for decades – is the vast numbers of people who live day to day on casual labor, not knowing from one week to the next if they will have a job and unable to plan ahead, let alone months rather than years, for their children’s prosperity. We call this the informal economy – and as with so much pseudo-technical language which erects barriers, the phrase fails to convey the abject state of purgatory to which it condemns millions of workers and their families around the world.
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If the potential of public-private partnerships (PPPs) is to be realized, joint working within the public sector and between the public and private sectors needs to be improved.
Experience across the world has consistently identified that organizations find it difficult to effectively work together both within and across sectors. Issues of organizational objectives and priorities, individual and organizational sovereignty, status, power, resources, and culture act as barriers. This too often means that the potential outputs and outcomes from PPPs are not maximized.
A colleague stopped me by the elevators while I was leaving the office.
“Do you know of any paper on (some complicated adjustment) of standard errors?”
I tried to remember, but nothing came to mind – “No, why do you need it?”
“A reviewer is asking for a correction.”
I mechanically took off my glasses and started to rub my eyes – “But it will make no difference. And even if it does, wouldn’t it be trivial compared to the other errors in your data?”
“Yes, I know. But I can’t control those other errors, so I’m doing my best I can, where I can.”
This happens again and again — how many times have I been in his shoes? In my previous life as an applied micro-economist, I was happily delegating control of data quality to “survey professionals” — national statistical offices or international organizations involved in data collection, without much interest in looking at the nitty-gritty details of how those data were collected. It was only after I got directly involved in survey work that I realized the extent to which data quality is affected by myriad extrinsic factors, from the technical (survey standards, protocols, methodology) to the practical (a surprise rainstorm, buggy software, broken equipment) to the contextual (the credentials and incentives of the interviewers, proper training and piloting), and a universe of other factors which are obvious to data producers but usually obscure and typically hidden from data users.
Recent estimates place global annual non-revenue water (NRW), i.e. water produced but not billed because of commercial or physical losses, at 126 billion cubic meters. This translates to nearly $40 billion in annual losses on waste and foregone revenues—a sum, that even if a fraction could be recovered, would underpin a compelling market opportunity for private service companies and a boost to public water utilities’ sustainability.
A new joint initiative is aiming to drive declines in NRW faster, cheaper, and more sustainably by assisting water utilities to engage private companies in performance-based contracts (PBCs). The World Bank’s Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF) and the Bank’s Water Global Practice, in partnership with the International Water Association, analyzed 43 projects and determined that NRW initiatives supported by PBCs are 68 percent more effective compared to those undertaken by utilities alone, (see for example, Using Performance Based Contracts to Reduce NRW) and are systematically faster at reducing the rate of loss.
One of the encouraging signs that I pick up whenever I travel is the difference that technology is making to the lives of millions of marginalized people. In most cases it’s happening on a small, non-flashy scale in hundreds of different ways, quietly improving the opportunities that that have been denied to remote communities, women and young people for getting a foot on the ladder.
And because it is discreet and under the radar I dare as an optimist to suggest that we are at the beginning of something big – a slow tsunami of success. Let me give you some reasons why I believe this.