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social protection

Four key trends in Economic Inclusion Programs

Ines Arevalo's picture
Economic inclusion programs provide a “big push” to help the extreme poor and other vulnerable people move into sustainable livelihoods, and can play an important part in poverty reduction. Photo: Maria Fleischmann / World Bank

Targeted household-level economic inclusion programs are on the rise:  nearly 100 programs across 43 countries have reached an estimated 14 million people to date, according to the Partnership for Economic Inclusion’s (PEI) 2018 State of the Sector report. These programs provide a “big push” to help the extreme poor and other vulnerable people move into sustainable livelihoods, and can play an important part in poverty reduction and the new “social contract”, as noted in a recent blog.

Impact sourcing and young social entrepreneurs: Two approaches to tackle youth unemployment

Jose Manuel Romero's picture
The Ferizaj Four at UPSHIFT, a workshop that enables youth to build and lead solutions to a social challenge in their community. Photo: UNICEF/Njomza Kadriu

Social enterprises have plenty of potential to make concrete impacts on youth employment outcomes. For those not familiar with this model, social enterprises are businesses that conduct commercial, profit-generating activities but focus more on social outcomes than profits. This innovative approach in development has caught the attention of many in the youth employment space, especially over the last five years, partly because it relies less on public sector and donor funding -unlike many conventional programs. 
 
Among Solutions for Youth Employment (S4YE)’s Impact Portfolio  community of innovative youth employment projects, there are two projects that take the social enterprise model to practice: Digital Divide Data (DDD) and UNICEF’s UPSHIFT program. Each project represents a different way of applying the concept of social enterprise: Digital Divide Data itself is a youth employment project that operates as a social enterprise, while UPSHIFT works on creating young social entrepreneurs.

Citizens lead Sierra Leone’s path to quality service delivery

Kimie Velhagen's picture
Community of Mapaki's Community Monitoring Group Members, Ward 112, Bombali District. Photo: World Bank

When was the last time you participated in a community and worked together to reach a common goal? Communities across Sierra Leone are doing just that.

Fossil fuel subsidy reforms: we know why, the question is how

Jun Erik Rentschler's picture
A new book, “Fossil Fuel Subsidy Reforms: A Guide to Economic and Political Complexity (Routledge), explores the complex economics and politics of fossil fuel subsidies, and distils key principles for designing and implementing of effective reforms. Here are some key insights.

Using adaptive social protection to cope with crisis and build resilience

Michal Rutkowski's picture
In a world increasingly filled with risk, social protection systems help individuals and families cope with civil war, natural disaster, displacement, and other shocks. ©
 Farhana Asnap/World Bank


Crisis is becoming a new normal in the world today. Over the past 30 years, the world has lost more than 2.5 million people and almost $4 trillion to natural disasters. In 2017 alone, adverse natural events resulted in global losses of about $330 billion, making last year the costliest ever in terms of global weather-related disasters. Climate change, demographic shifts, and other global trends may also create fragility risks. Currently, conflicts drive 80 percent of all humanitarian needs and the share of the extreme poor living in conflict-affected situations is expected to rise to more than 60 percent by 2030.

For social programs, social registries serve as a tool for inclusion

Kathy Lindert's picture
© Julia Pacheco/World Bank
© Julia Pacheco/World Bank

Celina Maria migrated from Bahia to Rio de Janeiro when she was just 17 and pregnant with twins, without completing her education and therefore have had difficulties finding good formal jobs. Over her life, she faced many challenges from being homeless to unemployed, while living in food insecurity with her children. Like Celina Maria, millions of people around the globe face multiple constraints – low earnings, limited assets, low human capital, idiosyncratic shocks and exposition to natural shocks, violence, and more – yearning to live with dignity and a decent and economically independent life.

To address the diverse needs of the poor, many countries offer a myriad of social benefits and services. Despite good intentions, this can lead to fragmentation in the absence of a clear strategy and coordinated processes and systems.   

Indonesia’s Social Assistance System: Praising Reforms But More Work Ahead

Pablo Acosta's picture



When the Bank did its first social assistance public expenditure review in Indonesia in 2012, the diagnosis was clear. Despite spending significant amount of resources in “welfare”, most of them were through expensive subsidies (fuel, electricity, rice) that were not necessarily benefiting the most vulnerable segments of the society. General subsidies represented 20 percent of total national budget, but household targeted social assistance programs were already making their way, increasing from 0.3 to 0.5 percent of GDP between 2004 and 2010. Still, there was an overall dissatisfaction on what had been achieved, with the Gini coefficient rose by about 6 percentage points in the period of 2005 to 2012.

With more than 27 million people still considered poor and as one of the countries in the East Asia and the Pacific region that has one of the highest income inequality levels, the coverage expansion and social assistance system strengthening is a must. Fortunately, the situation in the social assistance sector has changed dramatically.

Cash it out? Why food-based programs exist, and how to improve them

Ugo Gentilini's picture
© Dominic Chavez/World Bank
© Dominic Chavez/World Bank

India’s state of Chhattisgarh faced a daunting challenge in the mid-2000s. About half of its public food distribution was leaked, meaning that it never reached the intended beneficiaries. By 2012, however, Chhattisgarh had nearly eliminated leakages, doubled the coverage of the scheme, and reduced exclusion errors to low single digits.
 
How did they do it? 

In Somalia, resilience can be strengthened through social protection

Zaineb Majoka's picture
Somalis have traditionally engaged in pastoralism: a form of livestock production in which subsistence herding is the primary economic activity relying on the movement of herds and people. (Photo: Arne Hoel / World Bank)


I have been working on assessing social protection mechanisms in Somalia for more than a year now.  In 2011, some 260,000 people died from famine. Given that 51.8 percentage of the population is poor with average daily consumption below $1.9 and 9 percent are internally displaced, it is only fair to despair over Somalia’s development, or lack thereof.

Madagascar 25 years later: Human development investments are making a difference!

Lynne Sherburne-Benz's picture
Lynne Sherburne-Benz, World Bank Senior Regional Advisor for Africa, exchanges with young beneficiaries of the Madagascar Social Safety Net Project.


I first visited Madagascar in 1985 as a student doing research with FOFIFA, Madagascar’s national center for agricultural research. I was fortunate to be able to come back in the early 1990s as a task team leader for a project funded by the World Bank, at a time when the Bank was restructuring its projects to respond to drought in southern Madagascar. Over two decades later, here I am again in the South of this beautiful country, which is suffering again from drought and continues to be counted among the poorest countries in the world.


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