Many people traveling to Nepal choose the Himalayas as their primary destination.
After landing in the capital city of Kathmandu, most adrenaline junkies and nature lovers quickly make their way to the mountains to spend days trekking along high peaks.
This place is Lalitpur City, or locally known as Patan, “the city of fine arts.”
Located in the center of the city is Durbar Square, one of the seven monument zones in the Kathmandu Valley UNESCO World Heritage site known for its beautiful Newari architecture and home to the ancient royal palace and various Hindu temples and Buddhist monuments.
Disasters caused by natural hazards result in average annual welfare losses of over US$500 billion and push up to 26 million people into poverty each year. Some of these negative consequences are due to recovery that is not resilient, takes too long and is not equitable. According to the Building Back Better report, this can be mitigated by building back stronger, faster and more inclusively following a disaster.
As highlighted in the UN-World Bank report Pathways for Peace: Inclusive Approaches to Preventing Violent Conflict, the number of violent conflicts has increased since 2010, thus raising the question of how violence and its escalation can be prevented. Conflict prevention mechanisms exist. Let’s take a look at Early Warning and Response Systems (EWRS), but first, what is early warning and early response?
The World Bank Group has launched its Action Plan on Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience. As an institution that is committed to development, the World Bank has an enormous responsibility to help countries and communities act early, to build resilience to what we know they are going to be facing – more frequent and more dramatic climate disasters because of climate change.
In fact, over the past 30 years, more than 2.5 million people and almost $4 trillion have been lost to disasters caused by natural hazards, with global losses quadrupling from $50 billion a year in the 1980s to $200 billion in the last decade, reaching $330 billion in global losses in 2017.
The nature of conflict is changing. Fighting has taken on new forms, often involving a burgeoning constellation of armed groups operating in increasingly complex threat environments that feature not only state armies, but non-state armed groups, criminal gangs, drug-traffickers, and groups designated as terrorist organizations. These actors employ new communications and weapons technologies, and frequently operate across national borders.
As digital technology continues to transform and reshape the transportation industry over the last few years, blockchain as a decentralized distributed technology has been embraced by other fields through various applications. It has found varied applications across banking, financial services, healthcare, e-governance, and voting.
Blockchain has immense potential to solve the most pressing problems of mobility where it can be used by private & public sector to securely share and integrate data across modes of transport. It paves the path for transforming Mobility as a Service (or MaaS), where a user may access different modes of transport (three-wheelers, bus, metro, train etc.) on a single platform with seamless connectivity. It makes a paradigm shift in redefining the customer needs in terms of service, rather than the mode of transport.
The applications of blockchain in reducing the cost of financial transactions have been implemented across sectors. In India, 80% of our travel is for distances less than 5 km and most of this is through non-motorized modes of transport which may largely be served by walking, bicycle, and cycle rickshaws. In these modes the, transaction size for every ride is small (or nil). Also, people in urban and semi-urban areas tend to use multiple modes of transport to reach their destinations. In this case, it makes sense for using digital payments that are integrated across all modes of transport. But the payment systems of today charge a transaction fee of between 0.5% to 5%. This hampers the faster uptake of digital payments, especially for smaller transactions. Blockchain greatly reduces the cost per transaction as there are no intermediaries involved in the payment system, thus making small transactions of even 1 or 2 Indian rupees ($0.014 to $0.028) digitally feasible.
- electric cars
- electric vehicles
- shared mobility
- gender and transport
- road safety
- safe transport
- integrated systems
- multimodal transport
- urban transport
- sustainable mobility
- sustainable transport
- Sustainable Communities
- Financial Sector
- Urban Development
- Information and Communication Technologies
- Global Economy
- South Asia
Did you know that women, girls, men and boys are often affected differently by disasters? While natural hazards make no distinction as to who they strike, underlying “man-made” vulnerabilities – such as gender inequality caused by socioeconomic conditions, social norms, cultural beliefs and traditional practices – can leave some groups much worse off than others. Disasters harm all, but they often disproportionally affect women and girls because of their lower access to political, economic and social resources as well as social and cultural gender-specific expectations and norms.
In fact, women’s and girls’ disaster mortality tends to be higher than that of men and boys. Case in point: Four times as many women than men were killed in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and India during the 2004 tsunami. A big reason for this is that men learned how to swim and climb trees at young ages, while women did no. And 90% of the victims of the 1991 cyclone in Bangladesh were women, because social and cultural norms restricted their mobility. Beyond this direct impact, women and girls are also subject to indirect impacts in the aftermath of disasters including loss of livelihoods, increase in workload, rise of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), deterioration in sexual and reproductive health, loss of education for girls and limited access to post-disaster remedies and compensation.