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Conflict

Medellin Lab 2.0: Sharing knowledge on urban transformation

Philip E. Karp's picture
 


Medellin represents a remarkable story of urban transformation. 
 
At one point, it was considered one of the most dangerous cities in the world. From 1990 to 1993, more than 6,000 people were murdered annually.  Drive-by shootings were regular and indiscriminate, stemming from warfare between gang lords, drug criminals, and para-military groups.  The need for change was urgent and led to radical urban experimentation.
 
The city’s political and business leaders recognized that Medellín’s security issues could not be dealt with through policy measures alone. They initiated a series of radical programs to reshape the social fabric of the city’s neighborhoods and to mobilize the poor. 
 
City planners began addressing the problem of endemic violence and inequity through the design of public spaces, transit infrastructure and urban interventions into marginalized neighborhoods.  Key to their approach was a commitment to making the public realm a truly shared space, and a faith that they could transform Medellín’s public spaces from sites of segregation and warfare into spaces where communities would come together. 

Re-positioning local councils at the center of the response to the refugee crisis in Cameroon

Catherine Defontaine's picture
Photo: O. Hebga/ World Bank


On a visit last year to the East region of Cameroon, a traditional leader we met in the municipality of Garoua-Boulai impressed us with their efforts to help refugees.  
 
We were the first to welcome our Central African brothers. We live at the border, so they came to us. There were women, children… tired, some injured. Most of them had to abandon everything, and travelled only with the clothes they wore. They are our brothers, so we welcomed them. We gave them a place to settle down, some farm a small plot of land,” he said.

Resilient schools, resilient communities: Improving education infrastructure for Syrian refugees and host communities in Turkey

Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez's picture
 


Across the globe, more than 20 million children from conflict-affected countries are out of school. Missing out on schooling opportunities severely compromises the future of displaced individuals, who have left everything behind to escape conflict and violence.

Take Syrian refugees in Turkey, the country that hosts more individuals fleeing from armed conflict than any other in the world. Turkey has welcomed nearly 3.6 million of the 5.7 million externally displaced individuals as a result of the protracted crisis in Syria. Almost one-third of these people are of school age.

Yemen: Where humanitarian and development efforts meet

Raja Bentaouet Kattan's picture



The poorest country in the Middle East and North Africa even prior to the conflict, Yemen has through violence and subsequent economic freefall landed at the epicenter of a series of interrelated emergencies that the United Nations describes as the “world’s worst humanitarian crisis.” This is the first of a three-part blog series on the Bank’s response in Yemen.

In July of this year, I assumed the role of Country Manager for Yemen. Much has happened in my first 100 days as CM. 

Paris Peace Forum - Preventing conflict in 2018, 100 years after the Armistice

Franck Bousquet's picture
Paris Peace Forum. © Ibrahim Ajaja/World Bank
Paris Peace Forum. © Ibrahim Ajaja/World Bank

This week marks 100 years since the end of World War I. One hundred years since an armistice encouraged battling sides to lay down their arms and usher in peace. Many of us – the lucky ones – still enjoy peace. We go to work, to school, to the playground, to shops and restaurants all with a sense of safety and security. But that is not the case for many people around the world. Wars still rage in Syria, Yemen and Iraq, and violent conflict mars communities in every region of the globe.
 
Also this week, world leaders are in France – site of the 1918 Armistice signing – for the Paris Peace Forum. They are marking the occasion, but also working to address the international tensions that cause unrest in our day and age, and the initiatives aimed at preventing them: cooperation to fight climate change, resource scarcity, globalization and technological disruptions; institutions to channel power rivalries and administer global public goods; justice to assuage grievances and frustration, regulation to address inequalities and abuses of power; and peacebuilding and security.
 
I participated in the Forum yesterday with other colleagues from the World Bank and highlighted the plight of one group for whom conflict and fragility make worse an already tenuous situation: the world’s poor.

The urban dimensions of mixed migration and forced displacement in South Africa

Helidah Refiloe Ogude's picture
Braamfontein Railway Yards, Johannesburg © demerzel21


Across the world, the movement of people is an increasingly urban phenomenon. As such, researchers are beginning to recognize that the developmental consequences of migration are often felt most acutely at the municipal or provincial level. A newly published study Mixed Migration, Forced Displacement and Job Outcomes in South Africa, adds to the growing body of research on movement to cities by highlighting the important urban dimensions of these movements into and within South Africa.

Social cohesion: Why does it matter in forced displacement situations?

Jo de Berry's picture



When refugees arrive, everything changes for the hosting community. Suddenly, there are large numbers of people who need to use your hospital, your school, and collect water from the same source. You know that they have suffered a traumatic experience, but you may start blaming the newcomers for the pressures that they bring to your community, causing tensions and raising the possibility of potential conflict.

Financing stabilization: Achieving a common vision for security and development

Paul M. Bisca's picture
UN troops patrol the airport grounds in Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo. They are followed closely by children who were able to sneak into the airport without much trouble. © Vincent Tremeau/ World Bank


Deciphering the nexus between security and development has become one of today’s most pressing global challenges. Just look at recent news: In the past few weeks, more than 5,000 people have been marching from Central America to the United States to flee criminal violence and poverty. In Afghanistan, 4 million people have voted in parliamentary elections amid growing violent attacks that have taken almost 30 lives, including that of a powerful a police chief. In Nigeria, insecurity is a major development challenge due to the militant group Boko Haram, as well as because of the growing intercommunal violence between herders and pastoralists.

Read the full blog on Paris Peace Forum's Medium

What’s the latest in development economics research? Microsummaries of 150+ papers from NEUDC 2018

David Evans's picture



Last weekend, the North East Universities Development Consortium held its annual conference, with more than 160 papers on a wide range of development topics and from a broad array of low- and middle-income countries. We’ve provided bite-sized, accessible (we hope!) summaries of every one of those papers that we could find on-line. Check out this collection of exciting new development economics research!

The papers are sorted by topic, but obviously many papers fit with multiple topics. There are agriculture papers in the behavioral section and trade papers in the conflict section. You should probably just read the whole post.

If you want to jump to a topic of interest, here they are: agriculture, behavioral, climate change, conflict, early child development, education, energy, finance, firms and taxes, food security, gender, health and nutrition, households, institutions and political economy, labor and migration, macroeconomics, poverty and inequality, risk management, social networks, trade, urban, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH).

Five ways to do better post-disaster assessments

Joe Leitmann's picture
2017 damage and loss assessment following landslides and floods in Sierra Leone. Photo: World Bank
2017 damage and loss assessment following landslides and floods in Sierra Leone. (Photo: World Bank)

Post-disaster assessments changed my life by starting my career in disaster risk management. Three months after arriving in Indonesia as the World Bank’s environment coordinator, the Indian Ocean tsunami and related earthquakes struck Aceh and Nias at the end of 2004. I was asked to pull together the economic evaluation of the disaster’s environmental impact as part of what was then known as a damage-and-loss assessment. Subsequently, the World Bank, United Nations and European Union agreed on a joint approach to crisis response in 2008, including a common methodology for post-disaster needs assessment (PDNA).

Now that we have a decade of experience with this approach, what have we learned and how can we do a better job in the future?


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