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Labor and Social Protection

Why are women working less under capitalism than communism?

Joanna Tyrowicz's picture
A woman works in a call center. Photo: © Flore de Préneuf / World Bank

The last three decades have seen a transition from central planning to market systems across Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). But over the same period there has been a consistent decrease in women’s employment. Prior to the transition, CEE countries were characterized by a relatively high employment ratio among women. Gender employment gaps were generally lower in CEE under central planning and then increased over the course of transition. 

New report makes it easy to explore data on skills development

Viviana Roseth's picture
Data is fundamental in determining how education can develop the skills that the labor market needs.

Education and training play an important role in ensuring that youth develop the skills they need to live independent and prosperous lives. The research is clear: youth are more affected by unemployment than any other age group. Around the globe we have seen the political, economic and social consequences of young people not having jobs. Governments and international development organizations have turned to education and training initiatives as one tool to enable youth to find jobs or launch their own businesses.

How long should the week be?

Maya Eden's picture

As agrarian economies modernize, a need emerges for coordination in production. In most countries, production is organized around a seven-day cycle in which five days are designated as workdays and two days are designated as a weekend. Indeed, in the United States, the vast majority of employed persons work during workdays and not during weekends.

Advancing a 21st century skills agenda for today's youth

Matt Hobson's picture
Also available in: Español


On World Youth Skills Day, we acknowledge the millions of young people that are falling in between the cracks because of a “skills gap” – a mismatch on the skills that they have acquired and the skills demanded by today’s employers.

Should cash transfers be systematically paid to mothers?

Damien de Walque's picture

When I was a high school student in Belgium, our history textbook included a reproduction of a painting entitled “The Drunkard” by Eugène Laermans. The painting was included in the section describing the history of the labor movement in the country and its achievements in passing legislation aimed at improving the situation of the working class. In particular, the painting was meant to illustrate why the Belgian law introducing child benefits – monthly transfers to all families raising children until age 18 (or until age 25 as long as they are still students) - stipulates that these benefits are paid to the mother. The law still holds today, even if it allows for exceptions when the mother is not present in the household.

Arab reality show tests humanity and empathy

Bassam Sebti's picture


It’s Ramadan and the Arabic TV channels are festooned with shows that vary from recurring popular soap operas, cooking and competition shows — but one has become the talk of the town.

Al Sadma, or The Shock, the Arabic version of the popular American show What Would You Do, is a reality TV prank show. But it’s not like many other tasteless reality shows that invoke fright and even terror, it is a show that invokes morality and examines humanity.

Can social protection play a role in reducing childhood violence?

Matthew H. Morton's picture
Photo: Scott Wallace / World Bank

As many as one billion children under the age of 18 experience some form of violence every year. This exposure is not only a violation of child rights; it can also hamper children’s cognitive development, mental health, educational achievement, and long-term labor market prospects.

Meanwhile, an estimated 1.9 billion people in 136 countries benefit from some type of social safety net, such as cash transfers and public works that target the poor and vulnerable—presenting a vast policy instrument with potential to help prevent childhood violence.

A blueprint for better jobs in Kenya

Maria Laura Sanchez Puerta's picture
We recently completed a Jobs Diagnostic in Kenya to look at ways that the country can create better jobs, especially for young Kenyans. Skills development is fundamental to the transition to better jobs as we found that firm creation is low and that more productive firms do not create more jobs. This lack of growth of the more productive firms is the real challenge. Better, more productive, transformational jobs will be key helping the country meets its goals of Vision 2030.
 

Jobs challenges and opportunities in Sierra Leone - notes from the field

Ian Walker's picture
A key theme in this year’s IDA replenishment is the need to improve jobs through accelerated economic transformation. Generating more jobs and increasing productivity by creating stronger market linkages is a challenge everywhere in the developing world. But it is both particularly important and difficult in countries facing fragility. Sierra Leone had hardly emerged from the effects of a long civil war when the Ebola crisis struck. Around the same time, the commodity super cycle began winding down in 2014, negatively affecting revenues. The Jobs Group is working with the Government in Sierra Leone to meet this challenge. A team recently visited Sierra Leone to see how World Bank Group operations are helping and to find out what more can be done to improve the outlook for jobs in the country.
 

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