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Labor and Social Protection

Shocks Hit Workers Twice In Offshoring Industries: Lessons From Mexico

Daniel Lederman's picture

Factory in Mexico. Source: Alan Grinberg -- http://www.flickr.com/photos/agrinberg/5536586224/The world is increasingly interconnected, and nowhere is a better example of that than the border between Mexico and the US. Lined with factories, the division between the two countries is blurred by a comprehensive trade agreement, international production chains, and other economic and social ties. On the Mexican side of the border, close to 3,000 factories import components and raw materials, workers assemble goods, and most of the finished products are destined for the US.

Is this good for Mexican workers? These export-oriented industries provide nearly two million jobs, a boon for development. But it turns out that these jobs can disappear quickly: the economic health of the US has a large impact on Mexican workers’ employment status, with downturns and booms amplified through a number of channels. Although the US economy is rarely volatile, this is an important finding that could have policy implications around the world. Mexico is similar to the increasing number of countries that have encouraged export-oriented industry as a strategy for development and enacted trade reforms integrating the local economy with the world market.

Fighting poverty in the Arab world: with Soap Operas?

Amina Semlali's picture
        Photo Source: Nasib Albitar

If you think you are immune to the lure of a soap opera then try watching an Egyptian soap. At first, you will be amused and perhaps even laugh at all the melodrama, but in the end you will most certainly find yourself wondering: Will Alia expose her evil twin sister? Will Omar learn how to read, propose to his beloved and be accepted by her upper-class family?

Unlocking the potential of young micro-entrepreneurs in Morocco

Gloria La Cava's picture
        World Bank | Arne Hoel

With the limited prospects of a formal job, a growing number of young people, especially the less educated ones, are attracted to the prospects of self-employment. It is seen as a way out of inactivity, low pay, long working hours, and the hazardous work conditions often associated with the informal sector. But their lack of access to business training and finance constitute major barriers towards setting up viable micro-enterprises.

It is time for the Arab world to invest in people not subsidies

Hana Brixi's picture
        World Bank

Governments in the Arab world have historically relied on subsidies to lower the cost of fuel and food as the principal means for protecting the poor and sharing wealth. Or so they claim. The fundamental problem with subsidies is that they benefit the rich far more than the poor. They are as expensive as they are inefficient, failing to deliver any economic or social value equal to the money spent on them.

Our Blog 2012: What did MENA view in Arabic, English, and French?

Caroline Freund's picture
       

The top blog in 2012 was by far the one calling on people to “Join Our Team”. In a region where youth employment is scarce, this call for applications to a new youth program for Arabic speakers at the World Bank received over 3000 views in Arabic and more than twice as many in English.

Is Rwanda Set to Reap the Demographic Dividend?

Tom Bundervoet's picture

From almost every point of view, Rwanda’s performance over the past decade has been an unambiguous success story.

Between 2001 and 2011, Rwanda’s economy grew by 8.2 percent per annum, earning the country a spot on the list of the ten fastest growing countries in the world. Poverty rates fell by 14 percentage points, effectively lifting more than one million Rwandans out of poverty. Social indicators followed the general trend: Net enrolment in primary school increased to almost 100 percent, completion rates tripled, and child mortality decreased more than threefold, hitting the mark oftwo-thirds reduction as targeted by the Millennium Development Goals.

Yet buried under all this good news lays another maybe even more important evolution.  After a decade-and-a-half stall, total fertility rates in Rwanda dropped from 6.1 in 2005 to 4.6 in 2010. This means that during a period of five years, the average number of children a woman of childbearing age can expect to have, has declined by 1.5.

Social Networks and cell phones in the aftermath of the Arab revolutions

Omer Karasapan's picture
       

When the Arab Spring broke out and regimes began to fall under the pressure of their own citizens, a revolution on social media also took hold. During this critical period, the use of Facebook and Twitter was ubiquitous, especially in Egypt and Tunisia. Social networks and cell phones played an important role.

How to increase investment in the Middle East and North Africa

Guest Blogger's picture

        World Bank

In light of recent political and social unrest in the region, foreign investors are taking a “wait-and-see” attitude to projects in the Middle East and North Africa. For the region’s investment promoters, this demands better, more proactive performance than in the past. Fortunately, although much remains to be done, the investment agencies of the 19 MENA governments are, as a group, off to a good start.

Rethinking Social Protection and Labor in Tanzania

Amadeus Kamagenge's picture

The Tanzania Social Action Fund (TASAF) is a critical player in Tanzania's effort to break the intergeneration cycle of poverty — a government funding facility that allows local and village governments to respond to community demands for poverty reduction interventions. Launched in 2000, TASAF recently embarked on a new phase that focuses on an integrated approach to social protection and labor. We spoke with Amadeus Kamagenge, TASAF's Head of Systems, Training, Research, and Participation, who stresses the need for institutional capacity, more accountability and transparency, and good data.

Why hasn’t economic growth been more inclusive in MENA?

Elena Ianchovichina's picture
        World Bank | Arne Hoel

The topic of inclusive growth has captivated the minds of economists and politicians in the Middle East and North Africa for some time. The interest was there before the events of the Arab Spring and only intensified with the revolutions of 2011. But inclusive growth has eluded the countries of the MENA region.

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