Forced displacement is a multifaceted phenomenon caused by persecution, conflict, repression, natural and human-made disasters, ecological degradation and other situations that directly endanger lives, freedom and livelihoods. Displacement may be triggered by such diverse actions as development projects, land and assets expropriation and human trafficking, among others. Since women and men traditionally have different socio-cultural-economic roles and positions they are also affected in different manners by forced displacement. Gender play an important role in the decision to flee, throughout the displacement process as well as in the decisions and experience related to finding solutions. The different dimensions of displacement have gender differentiated impacts, requiring a better understanding of how different parts of displaced and host communities are affected at each phase of the displacement cycle.
Migration and Remittances
In the current migration and refugee crisis, is scale trumping humanity?
Something about the way the story of the ongoing epic migration and refugee crisis is being told perturbs. Scale trumps humanity. Overwhelmingly, the focus is on the sheer girth and amplitude of the crisis. Mind-numbing statistics tumble from the mouth of broadcasters, and the cameras pan over and around scenes of multitudes on the move almost the same way that documentary makers film the flight of sky-darkening flocks of migratory birds or the earthquake mimicking stampede of wild bulls across a great river. The tragedies that occur with saddening frequency are anonymous: another boat sinks in the Mediterranean, hundreds are dead. We don’t see victims; we don’t know them. We see pictures of the flotsam and jetsam, of the foul detritus of failed voyages. And the cameras move on.
Until the picture of the lifeless body of little Aylan Kurdi on a Turkish beach turns up and the world is stunned and horrified. For instance, Prime Minister Matteo Renzi of Italy recently told Fareed Zakaria of CNN that that picture transformed policymaking in parts of Europe from indifferent to totally engaged. That, I would argue, is because that picture foregrounded a powerful truth.
What is this truth? It is this: while this migration and refugee crisis might be on a biblical scale, it is still about discrete, distinct, singular human lives. Each one of these people on the move is an individual, a bundle of consciousness, a brain, emotions, feelings, deep needs and aspirations, parents, families, friends, the whole nine yards. Above all, the truth is that each one of these individuals has chanced, gambled her life. In other words, each life caught up in this crisis is a life adventured. And when a human life is adventured a tragic ending is often the result.
Call for Papers: 9th International Conference on Migration and Development
Migration Policy Center, European University Institute, Florence, June 13-14, 2016
The French Development Agency (AFD) Research Department, the World Bank Development Research Group (DECRG) and the Migration Policy Center of the European University Institute (MPC-EUI) are jointly organizing the 9th International Conference on “Migration and Development”. The conference is devoted to investigating ways in which international migration affects economic and social change in developing countries. Possible topics include the effects of migration on poverty, inequality, and human capital formation; social networks and migration; diaspora externalities; remittances; brain drain; migration and institutional/technological change.
A selection of papers from the conference will be considered for a special issue of The Journal of Economic Geography.
Massimo Livi-Bacci, University of Florence
Gianmarco Ottaviano, London School of Economics
This is the fourth in our series of posts by students on the job market this year.
Institutions are widely believed to be important drivers of development. Recently, economists have begun using detailed micro data to study how historical institutions can shape development outcomes decades or even centuries down the line. But for anyone interested in development, a key question is what causes institutions to change over time. Here, the evidence is more scant. In my job market paper, my co-author Erik Prawitz and I ask if large-scale emigration can be a mechanism leading to political change in origin countries.
Although immigration and its effect on labor markets in receiving countries is a frequent focus of research and public concern, there is less known about the impact of emigration on sending countries. Yet, as Benjamin Elsner explains in his recent study for IZA World of Labor, emigration actually has positive and large effects on wages in sending countries.
The World Bank recently completed two surveys that confirm that large global banks are restricting or terminating relationships with other financial institutions and that banking services for money-transfer operators have become increasingly limited.
The risk is that a decline in correspondent banking services can lead to financial exclusion, particularly for remittance providers – poor people working in richer countries who send money home to their families in poorer countries. To a large extent, these restrictions have come about because of worries about money laundering or financing for terrorism and less appetite for risk.
However, there are alternatives. Mobile money is a fast-growing alternative to traditional banks. CBS’s Lesley Stahl recently reported on how MPesa has transformed financial inclusion in Kenya, where people- many of them poor- do most of their financial transactions via cellphone and outside of traditional banking systems. She also pointed out that tech giants like Google, Facebook, PayPal and Apple are all exploring this new consumer market, where sending money can be as simple as sending a text message. Also, according to the Financial Times, mobile money is making serious inroads in Latin America, where 37 mobile money services are now operational across 19 countries. Unlike the experience of Africa, Latin Americans are using mobile money to support urban middle-class lifestyles.
This is the first of our series of posts by students on the job market this year.
Return migration is an important channel through which migrant-sending countries stand to benefit from international migration. Experts often cite “brain gain” as its chief benefit: migrants not only bring back their original human capital but also new skills, connections, and experience acquired in foreign countries (see for example IOM 2008, Dayton-Johnson et al. 2009, and this UN report). But whether or not domestic employers in fact value foreign work experience in production processes at home is unclear. Skills learned abroad may be irrelevant. Worse, absence from the local labor market could be detrimental if the skills that employers value depreciate as a migrant spends time abroad. In my job market paper, I examine precisely this question: do employers actually value the foreign work experience of returning migrants?
However, in Central Asia, the story is more complicated. This is because the region’s poorer countries, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, depend critically on Russia through trade and remittances.
Falling remittances, reflecting the weakness of the Russian Ruble
According to just-released Russian Central Bank data, outward remittances from Russia fell sharply in the first half of the year, in USD terms. In the first six months of 2015 (relative to the same time in 2014) private transfers from Russia to Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan are reported to have fallen by over 45% and 30% respectively. While less exposed, Uzbekistan has experienced a loss of even greater magnitude: -48%.