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Labor and Social Protection

Our top picks for summer reading on jobs and development

Nicholas Charles Lord's picture
The town of Mafraq in the north of Jordan had 90,000 inhabitants before the Syrian crisis, with the influx of refugees its population has swelled to 200,000. Photo: William Stebbins / World Bank

We have curated the following articles and papers for summer reading. They highlight the ongoing coverage of the impact of technology and jobs, the need for new sets of skills relevant to the digital economy, the need for refugees to find work quickly and the global imperative for creating good jobs in Africa.

Implementing successful reforms: The case of social assistance in South Africa

Lucilla Maria Bruni's picture

South Africa’s social assistance system – through a comprehensive set of cash transfers -- covers nearly 16 million people. This is a big improvement from 1994, when cash transfers reached fewer than three million beneficiaries and suffered from discrimination and weak administration.

Estimates suggest that cash transfers in South Africa raise market incomes of the poor by a factor of 10, far greater than in other middle-income countries, including Brazil - often celebrated for its successful social assistance. Access to safety nets contributed to reducing poverty and inequality and had positive development impacts on health, schooling, and labor supply.

Indonesia’s structural transformation offers clues on where to find good jobs

Maria Monica Wihardja's picture



What goes up must come down.

The end of the commodities boom is a wake-up call for Indonesia, as the reversal in economic transformation has adversely impacted employment growth in recent years. How can Indonesia continue to create jobs for its growing labor force?

Jobs in manufacturing and services offer a solution, as historical patterns of job creation have shown.

In the past 20 years (excluding the economic crisis of 1997-1999), manufacturing and services have been important sources of job creation, while employment in agriculture continues to decline. From 1990 to 2015, jobs in agriculture fell to 34% from 56% of all employment, while service sector work has surged to 53% from 34%, and manufacturing jobs have increased from 10% to 13%.

Youth paving the road to 2030

Nicole Goldin's picture
Students from University of Ghana. Photo: World Bank


Chandni is a 20 year old Bangladeshi young woman with big dreams. She dropped out of school to care for her family, including her unemployed brother.  Without childcare, reliable transportation or affordable internet, she isn’t able to enroll in supplemental courses.  Without an education or skills, she can’t find decent work and is caught in a vicious cycle of generational poverty. 

Going from more to better jobs

Siv Tokle's picture

This is part of a series of blogs focused on the Sustainable Development Goals and data from the 2016 Edition of World Development Indicators.


Sustainable Development Goal 8 makes a specific commitment to improve the quality of employment. Its targets go beyond economic growth and more employment; they now commit us to job creation that is sustainable, more productive and inclusive. This is particularly applicable to women: the data show that women are disproportionately employed in lower productivity sectors.

Progress creates opportunities to address exclusion: Observations from the 4th LGBTI Human Rights Conference

Nicholas Menzies's picture
Foto: Andrés Scagliola, Intendencia de Montevideo
Photo: Andrés Scagliola, City of Montevideo

While many of the struggles that LGBTI people face are all too familiar – violence, stigma, discrimination – we’ve just returned from the fourth Global LGBTI Human Rights Conference in Uruguay full of stories of positive change.  We’re invigorated about the increasing potential for the Bank to be a valuable partner to our clients and LGBTI citizens around the world.

What our 10 best read blogs are telling us

Nicholas Charles Lord's picture
 Construction workers from Egypt are building stronger river banks along the Nile river to protect it from erosion. Photo © Dominic Chavez/World Bank

Summer is a time for reflection, for taking stock and seeing what is trending. So far this year, the Jobs Group has published 39 blogs on a wide range of topics. But what blogs have resonated most with our readers? Below you will find our most-read blog posts. In true top ten style, they are presented them in reverse order.

Chart: Where are the World's Youth Unemployed?

Tariq Khokhar's picture

The jobs challenges of urbanization in India and Pakistan

Michael Kugelman's picture
Michael Kugelman, guest blogger, is the senior associate for South Asia at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, DC.
A busy train station in Mumbai, India. Photo: Simone D. McCourtie / World Bank

India and Pakistan are urbanizing at remarkably rapid rates. India’s urban population has increased from less than 20 percent of its overall population in 1951 to more than 30 percent today. In Pakistan, the share of the urban population—well under 20 percent in the 1960s, is more than a third today.

Why are women working less under capitalism than communism?

Joanna Tyrowicz's picture
A woman works in a call center. Photo: © Flore de Préneuf / World Bank

The last three decades have seen a transition from central planning to market systems across Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). But over the same period there has been a consistent decrease in women’s employment. Prior to the transition, CEE countries were characterized by a relatively high employment ratio among women. Gender employment gaps were generally lower in CEE under central planning and then increased over the course of transition. 


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