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Labor and Social Protection

Simulating job growth through macro models

Camilo Mondragon-Velez's picture

Also available in: Español

Simulating job growth through macro models
Macro models aim to better track the ripple of jobs generated throughout the economy from private sector investments and interventions. Photo: Yang Aijun / World Bank
 

We are developing Macro Simulation Models to estimate how investments and interventions may generate jobs. Following the  Jobs Study conducted by the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the World Bank Group’s private sector arm, the Let’s Work Partnership was established to develop, refine, and apply tools to estimate direct, indirect, and induced job effects. Macro models are one of these tools.

Women count: Turning demographic challenge into opportunty in Armenia

Laura Bailey's picture


“You can’t hold back time,” goes the saying (and the song). Indeed, the Laws of Nature dictate that people and societies get older and older, whether we like it or not.

But let me pose a question: are aging societies doomed to experience stagnation or a decline in living standards? Some might believe so, but I would argue that it is possible to address the realities of changing demographics that come from aging – through bold adaptive action!

The long road to gender equality in Nepal

Richa Bhattarai's picture
 
The Government of Nepal is working to incorporate gender equality in all its development policies and programs. Credit: Bijay Gajmer/World Bank


Today marks International Women’s Day throughout the world. Here in Nepal, it is a joyful tribute to the fact that the country boasts three women holding key leadership positions in the country – Bidhya Devi Bhandari as President, Sushila Karki as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and Onsari Gharti Magar as Speaker of the Parliament.

All three are the first women to hold their respective posts, and the Chief Justice, especially, has been lauded as a bold and independent decision-maker.

The Constitution of Nepal 2015 has been a huge improvement from the days of yore:  Article 43 deals with the rights of women that include rights to lineage, right to safe maternity and reproduction, right against all forms of exploitation, and equal rights in family matters and property.

The Government of Nepal is also working to incorporate gender equality in all development policies and programs, including developing a gender responsive budget system.

We also have excellent examples of women making great leaps in almost all fields – science, economics, banking and finance, media, environment, education, public health, social service and development.

And in a heartening move, Chhaupadi, an inhuman practice that imposes upon women to stay outside their homes in unhygienic cow sheds during menstruation and childbirth, is set to be criminalized in the new legal code.

However, progress made in specific fields has not yet contributed to the overall improvement in girls’ and women’s lives across the country. Similarly, plans and policies do not always spur positive changes in reality.

Women in the changing world of work: Not just more jobs but better jobs for women

Namita Datta's picture
While addressing gender gaps in labor force participation rates remains a key concern in several countries, it is even more critical to focus on the quality of the jobs to which women have access. Photo: Arne Hoel / World Bank

This year’s International Women’s Day “Women in the Changing World of Work: Planet 50-50 by 2030” places great emphasis on equality and economic empowerment. When countries give women greater opportunities to participate in the economy, the benefits extend far beyond individual girls and women but also to societies and economies as a whole. Addressing gender gaps in accessing good quality jobs is not just the right thing to do from a human rights perspective; it is also smart economics. A recent study shows that raising labor participation of women at par with men can increase GDP in the United States by 5 percent, in the UAE by 12 percent and in Egypt by 34 percent.

Looking to the future: Ensuring better job opportunities for Tajikistan’s youth

Mohamed Ihsan Ajwad's picture
A significant share of Tajikistan’s workforce works outside the country. 
Photo: Gennadiy Ratushenko / World Bank

My colleague Victoria and I had an opportunity recently to meet with students at the Tajik-Russian Slavonic University in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, as part of our research and preparation for a new report called Tajikistan Jobs Diagnostic: Strategic Framework for Jobs.

Curious to learn about their future professional ambitions, we asked one class of students how many of them would like to work in the private sector after they graduate. Only about 10% of the students raised their hands. We also asked them how many would like to work for the government. This time, around 20% raised their hands.

Looking to the future: Ensuring better job opportunities for Tajikistan’s youth

Mohamed Ihsan Ajwad's picture
Ensuring better job opportunities for Tajikistan's youth
A significant share of Tajikistan’s workforce works outside the country. Photo: Gennadiy Ratushenko / World Bank


My colleague Victoria and I had an opportunity recently to meet with students at the Tajik-Russian Slavonic University in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, as part of our research and preparation for a new report called Tajikistan Jobs Diagnostic: Strategic Framework for Jobs.

Curious to learn about their future professional ambitions, we asked one class of students how many of them would like to work in the private sector after they graduate. Only about 10% of the students raised their hands. We also asked them how many would like to work for the government. This time, around 20% raised their hands.

When it comes to measuring jobs, the need to refine traditional tools with new methods

Alvaro Gonzalez's picture
 Chhor Sokunthea / World Bank
One of the challenges of measuring jobs is addressing impacts that go beyond direct jobs. A tool called tracer surveys is helping do this.
Photo: Chhor Sokunthea / World Bank


In addition to correctly measuring the jobs directly generated from interventions and investments, development agencies also need to estimate the resulting indirect impacts and general equilibrium effects. These are hard to measure. My recent blog highlighted the progress that donors, international financial institutions, and other multilateral agencies are making in developing standardized tools to measure these impacts. In addition to standardization, the focus is now on strengthening existing measurement tools and addressing the challenges that are left.  

Ethiopia Socioeconomic Survey 2015-2016: Data and documentation now available

Vini Vaid's picture
© Alemayehu A. Ambel / World Bank

The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) in collaboration with the World Bank’s Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) team launched the third wave (2015–16) of the Ethiopia Socioeconomic Survey (ESS) panel data, on February 22, 2017.  
 
The ESS is a nationally representative survey administered every 2 years that covers a range of topics including demography, education, health, savings, labor, welfare, and agriculture, food security and shocks. The data is collected in two visits: post-planting and post-harvest seasons. The survey follows the same households over time and collects a rich set of information, to allow for comprehensive panel data analyses that can help shape policies for a wide array of development sectors.
 
Here are some interesting findings from the ESS 2015–16 survey:      

The future of jobs in the developing world and what it means for our work

Lillian Foo's picture
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An interview with Michal Rutkowski, Senior Director for the World Bank’s Social Protection and Jobs Group
What are some of the challenges faced by countries trying to create jobs in today’s world? How do we deal with informal jobs, and should we really fear robots taking away jobs? We caught up with Michal Rutkowski, Senior Director for the World Bank’s Social Protection and Jobs Group, to get his insights on these key issues and what they mean for the work that we do.

To fight discrimination, we need to fill the LGBTI data gap

Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez's picture
Despite some progress in the past two decades, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) people continue to face widespread discrimination and exclusion around the world. Many of them suffer from punitive laws and policies, social stigma, and even violence. They may also be subject to lower educational attainment, higher unemployment rates, poorer health outcomes, as well as unequal access to housing, finance, and social services. As a result, LGBTI people are likely overrepresented in the bottom 40% of the population.
 
The adverse impacts on the health and economic wellbeing of LGBTI groups—as well as on economies and societies at large—tell us one thing: exclusion and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) is a serious development issue.

We’ve already taken the first steps to address this issue, such as quantifying the loss in productivity, but there is still a long way to go. Robust, quantitative data on differential development experiences and outcomes of LGBTI people is crucial, but remains scarce especially in developing countries. Such a research and data gap poses a major constraint in designing and implementing more inclusive programs and policies.
 
The World Bank’s SOGI Task Force—consisting of representatives from various global practices and country offices, the Gender Cross-cutting Solution Area, as well as the GLOBE staff resource group—has identified the need for quantitative data on LGBTI as a priority. 
 
On Zero Discrimination Day, the World Bank’s Senior Director Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez and SOGI Advisor Clifton Cortez explain the urgent need to fill the LGBTI data gap. They’ve also discussed why inclusion matters for development, as well as what can be done to end poverty and inequality for LGBTI and other excluded groups.


 

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