Economists often recommend fuel taxes to curb greenhouse gas emissions from automobiles in cities. But the effectiveness of these taxes depends heavily on other factors, like the availability of public transportation, and the density of a city. In the following podcast interview, I discuss my paper, co-authored with Paolo Avner and Jun Rentschler, and explain why taxes are twice as effective when accompanied by an investment in public transport. Please listen in.
Reuters reports that the number of new Ebola cases in West Africa is growing faster than authorities can manage them, and that the World Health Organization (WHO) is renewing a call for health workers from around the world to go to the region to help.
The Wall Street Journal's 'Corporate Intelligence' blog finds that R&D by pharmaceuticals on tropical diseases like ebola is on the rise. "Increased focus on tropical diseases [is] a mix of social responsibility and “strategic investment in the customers of tomorrow, given that the tropics are home to over 40% of the world’s population," writes Hester Plumridge.
During the 1990s and 2000s, nearly two dozen African countries proposed de jure land reforms extending access to formal, freehold land tenure to millions of poor households, but many of these reforms stalled. Titled land remains largely the preserve of wealthy households and, within households, mainly the preserve of men.
An ambitious research project aiming to map the value of preserving the Amazon rainforest is just getting started at the World Bank. Why is it important to value the Amazon rainforest? Consider the perhaps most fundamental dilemma for conservation policy, with two opposing views. A “conservation” view is to assume that the rainforest should always be protected. A “development” view implies that the rainforest should always be converted to alternative uses (such as agriculture) when such conversion implies clear and readily measurable financial gains. Very often these two views cannot be reconciled, as the value attributed to forest protection by each of them can be dramatically different.
Do economists care about influencing public policy? is a question asked by Robert Hansen on the 'Overcoming bias' blog.
Abhijit Banerji, Arun Chandrasekhar, Esther Duflo, and Matthew Jackson have a new paper on a study of 43 Indian villages that tackles the subject of gossip and how to identify the village busybody, also known as the best information diffuser. This matters for microfinance and any product for which experts want local uptake or adoption.
The impact of the Great Recession on Latvia was severe. Between 2008 and 2010, GDP fell by 21 percent, 11 percent of the workforce lost their jobs, and poverty nearly doubled, to 18 percent. This was no ordinary recession, it was a deep crisis.
This is the story of how Latvia successfully cushioned the inevitable blow--to at least some workers--through a World Bank-supported public works program.
Enhancing the effectiveness of aid has long been the international development community’s core agenda, given the limited resources available for the fight against poverty. With the establishment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000 and the implementation of the Paris Declaration (PD) on Aid Effectiveness in 2005, the international community has continued to improve the impact of aid on development. However, poverty still persists despite drastic changes in the development landscape.
Recently, while reviewing a document, I came across a statistic about age dependency* in the Republic of Mauritius. Mauritius already had an age dependency ratio of 10.9 in 2010 and this is projected to rise to 25 by 2030 and 37 by 2050, which is at par with many East Asian economies. Aging issues in Europe and parts of Asia have already become an economic and fiscal policy concern over the last few years and will remain so for the foreseeable future, could it also become a problem for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) sooner than realized?
With 43 percent of the population below the age of 15 and only three percent above the age of 65, Sub-Saharan Africa is a predominantly young continent. The problems emanating from an ageing population, such as rising age dependency ratios and increasing health care costs, are far over the horizon as far as the continent is concerned. However, this may not remain so for long and definitely not for all the countries. Let me explain why.
'Africa: Digitizing Money -- A Big Opportunity for Broad-Based Growth in Africa,' is the title of an op ed by Geoffrey Lamb of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Ruth Goodwin-Groen of the Better Than Cash Alliance in AllAfrica.com. The piece cites a new World Bank study by Leora Klapper and others on how better access to basic financial services can help break the cycle of poverty and contribute to broad-based growth.
Nigeria has launched national electronic i.d. cards and the country's President, Goodluck Jonathan, says the e-ID scheme will have a pervasive and positive impact on citizens.
In updating the Findex database on financial inclusion over the 2014 calendar year, I had the pleasure of traveling with Gallup, Inc., to pilot our expanded questionnaire. We visited people’s homes and asked them to describe to us how they save, borrow, make payments, and manage their risk.
A man who lives in a small home in a Kolkata slum with his wife, children, and parents works as a driver, and is paid directly to a bank account that was opened for him by his employer. With great pride, he told us that every month he leaves a balance in his account, which he believes is a safe place to save for his children’s education.