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LTD Editors's blog

Doing Business methodology updates

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The World Bank Group’s Doing Business project provides objective measures of business regulations and their implementation across economies worldwide and selected cities at the subnational and regional level. The first Doing Business report, published in 2003, covered five indicator sets and 133 economies. The most recent report published in late 2013 covered 11 indicator sets and 189 economies.

As with most key international indicator sets, Doing Business has come a long way since its inception in 2002/2003 and continues to be a work in progress. The report team works to improve the methodology each year and to enhance their data collection, analysis and output. 

Friday Roundup: ​Sources of Humanitarian Aid, Stolen Girls, First Thousand Days, South Sudan, and New Kaushik Basu Paper

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An April briefing paper from 'Global Humanitarian Assistance' analyzes where humanitarian aid comes from and finds that private donors contributed US$4.1 billion in 2012, representing 24% of the total international response. Over a quarter of all international humanitarian assistance came from private donors between 2008 and 2012. The role of these private donors clearly goes beyond purely financial donations. There is an acknowledged rise for example in corporate partnerships, where expertise, human resources and goods are a given.

Changing Mindsets, Empowering People

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The following post is a part of a series that discusses 'mind and culture,' the theme of the World Bank’s upcoming World Development Report 2015.

When it comes to development, one size doesn’t fit all. It is about mindsets that can be transformed to see and do things differently. Taking a cue from this, The Hunger Project believes in empowering people to end their own hunger versus providing them with service delivery.  The Let’s Talk team caught up with John Coonrod, Executive Vice President, The Hunger Project, to know more about building self-reliant communities.

Friday roundup: Malaria, Piketty and Ravallion, Oxfam Challenges IFIs on Inequality, and Global Flows in the Digital Age

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'Our goal: Defeat malaria forever' is the title of a Path blog to commemorate World Malaria Day. Written by Dr. Carlos C. (Kent) Campbell and Bindiya Patel to commemorate World Malaria Day, it stresses that malaria control alone won't be enough to stop the disease.

Meanwhile, the economics world continues to be rocked by Piketty. His powerpoint on Capital in the 21st Century, presented recently at an IMF event where Martin Ravallion played the role of discussant, can be downloaded here. Ravallion provided his own take on historic inequality trends and explained why he thinks there is still hope that extreme poverty in the developing world will continue to fall, thanks in no small part to growth and other factors.

Growth, Inequality, and Social Welfare: Cross-Country Evidence

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Social welfare functions that assign weights to individuals based on their income levels can be used to document the relative importance of growth and inequality changes for changes in social welfare. This method is applied in a new working paper by David Dollar, Tatjana Kleineberg, and Aart Kraay. They find that, in a large panel of industrial and developing countries over the past 40 years, most of the cross-country and over-time variation in changes in social welfare is due to changes in average incomes. In contrast, the changes in inequality observed during this period are on average much smaller than changes in average incomes, are uncorrelated with changes in average incomes, and have contributed relatively little to changes in social welfare.

New Book: Right to Work? Assessing India's Employment Guarantee Scheme in Bihar

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A new book by Puja Dutta, Rinku Murgai, Martin Ravallion, and Dominique van de Walle looks at how successful India’s 2005 National Rural Employment Guarantee Act has been in creating 100 days of wage employment per year to all rural households whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work in public works projects at a stipulated minimum wage. The bulk of the study focuses on the scheme’s performance in one of India’s poorest states, Bihar. There the scheme seems to be falling well short of its potential impact on poverty. Workers are not getting all the work they want and they are not getting the full wages due. Many report that they had to give up some other income-earning activity when they took up work. The unmet demand for work is the single most important policy-relevant factor in accounting for the gap between actual performance and the scheme’s potential impact on poverty. The book suggests that supply-side constraints must be addressed in addition to raising public awareness, and identifies a number of specific supply-side constraints to work, including poor implementation capacity, weak financial management and monitoring systems.

Financial Education during Schooling Years Improves Financial Behavior Later

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The proliferation of new financial products and services continues to outpace the capacity of individuals and families to make informed financial choices. Financial education geared toward adults has shown low uptake, so the focus has shifted to introducing financial literacy during the schooling years. This research looks at a comprehensive financial education program spanning six states, 868 schools, and approximately 20,000 high school students in Brazil through a randomized control trial. The program increased student financial knowledge by a quarter of a standard deviation and led to a 1.4 percentage point increase in saving for purchases, better likelihood of financial planning, and greater participation in household financial decisions. “Trickle-up” impacts showed improvements in parental financial knowledge, savings, and spending behavior. The evidence suggests the program affected students’ preferences and attitudes about financial decisions well beyond the schooling years. Read the entire paper here.

Friday Roundup: DeLong on Piketty, Gentzkow wins Bates Medal, Mobile Money, and Remittances in Africa

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Equitablog, run by the Washington Center for Equitable Growth, has launched a series of 'Notes and Finger Exercises on Thomas Piketty’s “Capital in the Twenty-First Century.' Brad DeLong's post, 'There Are Four r’s', details some alleged oversights in Piketty's book. In particular, DeLong focuses on how the real interest rate behaves at different levels of economic activity. He highlights Larry Summers' concern about secular stagnation and the risk that rich folks might retreat from investing in industry. And DeLong pulls out some sexy math.

Matthew Gentzkow has won the John Bates Clark Medal, an honor conferred by the American Economic Association for his contributions to "our understanding of the economic forces driving the creation of media products, the changing nature and role of media in the digital environment, and the effect of media on education and civic engagement..."

Dynamic Effects of Microcredit in Bangladesh

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With the phenomenal growth of microfinance institutions representing 30 million members with over $2 billion of annual disbursement over the past two decades, it is important to understand the dynamics of microcredit expansion and its induced impact on household welfare. A new World Bank working paper by Shahidur R. Khandker and Hussain A. Samad uses long panel survey data spanning over 20 years to examine the dynamics of microcredit programs in Bangladesh.

WB President has conversation with Sachs and Basu moderated by Lowrey of the NYT

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 Steven Shapiro / World BankPresident Jim Yong Kim, Prof Jeff Sachs, Chief Economist Kaushik Basu and Annie Lowrey of the New York Times participated in a panel last Friday titled 'Sharing Prosperity, Delivering Results.'

The four discussed the challenges of achieving the World Bank Group's goals of ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity, and in so doing, all stressed the need to take on the goals with an activist's zeal.

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