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Africa

Gender-based violence, power and norms

Annamaria Milazzo's picture

Many laws prohibiting a range of gender violence have been ineffective in reducing the prevalence of harmful practices.  This is mainly due to the influential role that deeply rooted social norms—one of multiple and sometimes competing normative orders people adhere to—play in determining behavior and outcomes.

Gender-based violence (GBV) reflects power inequalities between women and men. Women and girls are more commonly the victims of GBV—a manifestation of power imbalance tilted in favor of men that characterizes many, mostly patriarchal, cultures around the world.  Collectively shared norms about women’s subordinate role in society and violence against them can also perpetuate the power imbalance. In the upcoming World Development Report 2017 we discuss how norms can reinforce existing power inequalities in society and how change can happen.

From gloom to boom: governance and economic development in Africa, in sequences

Michael Chege's picture

For any serious analysis of development in Africa, we must embrace the fact that there are distinct sovereign countries each with its own economic and development needs and likely policy choices. Perhaps at best we can only generalize about clusters of countries that share broadly similar governance, legal and development circumstances and what policies could apply to each cluster. 

Let’s look at some of the data. National populations in sub-Saharan Africa range from that of Nigeria (158.4 million) to that of Seychelles (93,000).  In 2014, Africa’s highest estimated GNI per capita that of Equatorial Guinea ($10,210), was 27 times larger than that of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the lowest recorded in the region. In 2013, the estimated GDP per capita of the ten richest African countries was 22.6 times that of the poorest ten.  Adult literacy rates in 2013 ranged from 93 percent in Equatorial Guinea to 34 percent in Chad. 

What to expect when you’re expecting, in Nigeria: Lessons from a series of health impact evaluations

Anushka Thewarapperuma's picture
The life of a Nigerian midwife


Childbirth is a time for expectant mothers to revel in the wonders and joy surrounding the arrival of a new human being; one breathing crisp new air, bawling with resonance in finding their voice and opening their eyes in awe to see the world around them. It’s the last conceivable moment where a mother wants to worry about the cleanliness of the birth facility, the baby’s life and, least of all, her own life. But in many developing countries including Nigeria, this is the reality.  

Myth or fact? New WDR examines the potential of digital technologies for development

Maja Andjelkovic's picture


Pop quiz: Which of these statements do you agree with?
 
  1. If you build “IT” they will come.
  2. Poor people don’t need mobile phones. They need clean water and food instead.
  3. Digital skills are only relevant for people who work in the ICT sector. The rest of us don’t need them.
 

#GenderMatters: From digital divides to digital dividends

Indhira Santos's picture
Eighty percent of the population in developing countries owns a mobile phone, but—according to the most recent report on the subject by the global association of mobile operators, GSMA—more than 1.7 billion women do not own one. Women are 14 percent less likely to own a mobile phone than men, on average. Women in South Asia are 38 percent less likely to own a phone than men.
 

As development actors, how should we address the forced displacement crisis?

Xavier Devictor's picture
Forced displacement has long been seen as a humanitarian issue. But with the number of forcibly displaced people at historic highs, there are increasing calls for development actors to engage.  

Does firm size matter for productivity? The case of informal firms in Africa

Asif Islam's picture
There are two fairly accepted empirical observations. First, formal firms are more productive and larger than informal firms. Second, in the formal sector, large firms are more productive than small firms. Should it then follow that, ceteris paribus, the productivity gap between the formal and informal sector firms narrows as informal firms become larger? Alternatively, as far as productivity is concerned, is formalization a simple march from small to large firms or is there more to it than that?

How digital financial services boost women’s economic opportunities

Leora Klapper's picture

Imagine having to skip work every month to travel to the city center just to pay your electricity bill or your child’s school fee? Would you not worry if your income relied on remittances and you were unable to pay rent because they were tied up in a network of agents? And wouldn't it frustrate you if you didn’t have a say in how your salary was spent or invested?

Having a bank account could help in all of these situations. Most of us probably have auto-pay set up so we don't need to worry about our monthly bill payments or money transfers. But the conveniences we take for granted are out of reach for the world's 1.1 billion women who lack an account. According to World Bank’s Global Findex database, men in developing countries are 9 percentage points more likely than women to own an account. The gap is largest in South Asia, where only 37 percent of women have an account compared with 55 percent of men.

Night lights and the pursuit of subnational GDP: Application to Kenya & Rwanda

Apurva Sanghi's picture
Estimating national-level growth levels and rates is fraught with challenges. Doing so at subnational levels even more so – because of data challenges, and difficulties in attributing economic activity to a specific subnational unit. However, as countries decentralize, estimating subnational economic activity and growth is becoming all the more relevant for at least three reasons: First, there is strong policy interest in seeing how growth can occur in different parts of countries, so that communities can share in national prosperity and not get left behind.

Appointing a gender equal cabinet is good for Canada – but not for the reason you think

Florence Kondylis's picture

Also available in: Français

Recently, Canada’s newly elected Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau, appointed a cabinet that is 50% female. Explaining the choice, Trudeau stated that it was important “to present to Canada a cabinet that looks like Canada” – and “because it’s 2015.”

The announcement has been greeted with considerable backlash in the press, with some news outlets going as far as to imply that promoting diversity is not good for governance. This view implies an either or – that appointing women and incorporating gender balance, while good for the country’s diversity, would undermine the quality of governance. One could probably name many male candidates who on paper look more accomplished than some of Trudeau’s appointees.

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