Syndicate content

Add new comment

To answer whether teachers can deny admission to school while primary schooling is supposed to be compulsory: (i) If teachers cannot deny admission, then our model suggests that the relationship between propensity to pay bribe and income will be non-linear: we should observe propensity to pay bribe to be zero at the bottom of the income distribution, then increase with an increase in income and finally decline with income. We did explore this in our data using non-parametric estimation and found no evidence of non-linear relationship. (ii) Evidence from Household Expenditure survey 2010 shows that there is a significant difference in primary enrolment rates between poor (bottom 30 percent of per capita expenditure distribution) and non-poor households: the enrolment rate is 72 percent for children coming from the poor households relative to 80 percent for children from non-poor households. In any case, enrolment has not reached close to 100 percent at the primary level yet. To conclude, we remain convinced that threat of not admitting a child to school is real. Please also see the following paper in the Global Corruption Report (2013) “Free or fee: corruption in primary school admissions” by Peter Hyll Larsen.