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On the concept of UHC, I think I’m saying something different from what you’re saying I’m saying. Yes, UHC is ultimately about better health and improved living standards through stronger financial protection. But it’s more than that. UHC is about making sure that everyone—whether rich or poor—gets the care they need without suffering undue financial hardship as a result. The word universal isn’t optional: UHC is about making the health system work for everyone. Reducing inequalities isn’t an optional add-on; it’s a core element of UHC. That’s not new wine to me, but I guess to some it will be. The second twist is that it’s getting us to think harder about relating use of services to need: UHC is partly about making sure people get the right care at the right time. Conceptually this isn’t new to me at least, but I think we’re learning that a lot of things we took for granted about what happens in practice can’t be taken for granted. We can’t continue to count doctor visits and hospital admissions and treat them all alike—we have to start looking to see what care is actually delivered during the contact, whether it’s what’s needed, and whether it’s delivered in a timely fashion. You ask whether the concept of UHC points toward a specific set of policy approaches or ‘operational prompts’. It’s a great question. You highlight prepayment and risk-pooling, and public health programs. I think prepayment and risk-pooling are indeed likely to be key. But UHC pushes you much further, it seems to me. You could have multiple risk-pooling schemes stretching across the income distribution without any risk-equalizing transfers. Such fragmentation—with coverage varying systematically with income—wouldn’t be consistent with UHC. I think you’re losing sight of the universal bit of UHC: the commitment to equity. And sure public health has an important place, but UHC is much more than ensuring the government delivers programs with public goods characteristics. It’s about ensuring that everyone gets the personal health services they need irrespective of their ability to pay. That means UHC needs to get into the demand for and delivery of personal health services. I’m starting to think I might have misspoken; perhaps the wine is new after all!