They were everywhere — blown-up condoms flying around as balloons in a small village in southern Kenya. A day earlier volunteers from an international NGO came to the village to promote family planning. They held a daylong workshop for women and thoroughly described the risks of lack of sexual protection. The next day, the volunteers left, and the village was covered with flying condom-balloons. It was 2007 and I was just about to learn how typical that story was. In the months that followed, I saw cookstoves being used as shelves and mosquito nets as football goals. So what went wrong?
So why do communities defecate in the open although sanitation infrastructure is provided? And how do successful social enterprises deliver services to the bottom of the pyramid to change behaviors?
They were simply not used. A few dozen toilets constructed in a small village in India worked well, except the villagers were not using them. Some conversations later, researchers discovered what had been overlooked during the planning phases: the morning open defecation practice was the only social activity for local women, otherwise spending all their time under the guardianship of their husbands. It was the highlight of their day, the time when they could freely talk, laugh, and gossip without the constraint of men and their day to day life.