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Vietnam

Ứng phó với biến đổi khí hậu – đảm bảo tương lai cho nông dân

Le Thu Thi Nguyen's picture
Also available in: English
Việt Nam là một trong những nước chịu tác động nặng nề nhất của biến đổi khí hậu. Chính phủ đã sử dụng tiền đầu tư để ứng phó với vấn đề này như thế nào? Xem toàn bộ đồ họa thông tin.

Trong đợt công tác chuẩn bị cho dự án trồng mới cây cà phê gần đây tôi đã gặp anh Y Cham, người Ê-đê, tại Dak Lak, vùng trồng cà phê robusta chính tại Tây Nguyên.

Y Cham đã làm nghề nông từ lâu. Anh chia sẻ với chúng tôi về lo lắng của mình cho bốn ha cà phê, đã không được tưới nước đầy đủ do hạn hán kéo dài.

“Nếu không thu hoạch được cà phê như năm ngoái thì cũng không biết làm sao có đủ tiền cho con gái tiếp tục theo học tại Trường Y Hà nội”.

Tây nguyên, nơi có tới 500.000 ha cà phê, đang bị hạn hán nghiêm trọng. Đợt hạn hán năm nay là đợt nghiêm trọng nhất trong 10 năm qua. Khai thác thủy lợi quá nhiều, sử dụng nước lãng phí cộng với thời kỳ khô hạn kéo dài đang gây nhiều khó khăn cho người trồng cà phê nếu họ không chuẩn bị kĩ đễ thích ứng tốt hơn với điều kiện thời tiết thay đổi.

Anh Y Cham cho biết, nước là thách thức lớn nhất trong các yếu tố tác động mạnh nhất tới năng suất cà phê theo thứ tự “nước, giống, vốn, kỹ thuật”. Nguồn nước và giống có khả năng chịu đựng được thời tiết là các yếu tố quan trọng nhất.

Thiếu nước cũng là một trong những chủ đề bàn cãi gay gắt gần đây trong hội nông dân trồng cà phê mà Y Cham tham gia thành lập gồm khoảng 250 thành viên, bên cạnh các vấn đề về biện pháp canh tác tốt do trung tâm khuyến nông tỉnh hỗ trợ cho người trồng cà phê. 

Adapting to climate change – securing dreams for farmers

Le Thu Thi Nguyen's picture
Also available in: Tiếng Việt
Vietnam is likely to be among the countries hardest hit by climate change. How has its government invested to respond to this issue? View the full infographic


Y Cham, whom I met during a mission to plan for our support for the coffee rejuvenation project, comes from the Ede ethnic minority in Dak Lak, the major robusta coffee-producing province in the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

The long-time farmer shared with me his worries about his four hectares of coffee garden which had not been watered enough due to the prolonged drought.

“If I cannot harvest as much coffee as last year, I cannot sustain the studies of my daughter who is a student at medical college in Hanoi”.
The Central Highland, home of 500,000 hectares of coffee, has recently been affected by severe drought. The drought this year is considered most the most serious in the last 10 years. Over-irrigation and inefficient water use, compounded by increasing periods of drought, makes coffee farmers highly vulnerable, unless they are prepared to better adapt to the changing weather patterns.  

Among the crucial factors for coffee yield, water, according to Y Cham, has become the biggest challenge in the priority order of “water, variety, funding, and science.” Water availability and advanced varieties resistant to the conditions of climate change are considered the most important factors.

Cho bệnh viện xanh hơn, sạch hơn và an toàn hơn

Sang Minh Le's picture
Also available in: English

Đồng nghiệp thường trêu chọc tôi, một bác sĩ không quản lý bệnh nhân, mà quản lý chất thải y tế. Phải thú nhận rằng đó là công việc lạ. Khi đến bệnh viện, tôi không đi vào cửa trước mà vòng vào phía sau. Ở đó, tôi chẳng đưa ra lời khuyên y khoa nào, mà lại động viên mọi người lao vào chỗ bẩn để làm cho nó sạch hơn.

Thế mà ngày càng nhiều người trong ngành y hào hứng với những công việc lạ như tôi. Bác sĩ Nguyễn Ngọc Dung, giám đốc Bệnh viện Y học cổ truyền Kiên Giang đã truyền lửa cho tất cả cán bộ nhân viên bằng cam kết “không nhìn thấy và không ngửi thấy chất thải” tại bất cứ nơi nào trong bệnh viện.

For greener, cleaner and safer hospitals

Sang Minh Le's picture
Also available in: Tiếng Việt

Colleagues often make fun of me - a physician who does not manage patients, but healthcare waste. I must confess that I have a strange job. When I visit hospitals, I do not walk through the front gate, but go around, behind the buildings. There I do not provide medical advice, but rather I motivate people to clean up a contaminated place.

More and more people in the health sector are enthusiastic about these unusual roles. Dr. Nguyen Ngoc Dzung, Director of Kien Giang Traditional Medicine Hospital, inspired all staff with her commitment that ensures people “do not see and do not smell healthcare waste” at any location in the hospital.

Đo lường nghèo ở Việt Nam như thế nào?

Linh Hoang Vu's picture
Also available in: English



Thế nào là nghèo ở Việt Nam? Khi tôi lớn lên ở Hà Nội trong những năm cuối thập kỷ 1980, có thể thấy cái nghèo ở khắp mọi nơi. Hầu hết người dân Việt Nam khi đó hẳn là sống ở mức dưới chuẩn nghèo quốc tế (1,25 đô-la một ngày). Bởi lẽ vào thời gian đó chưa có các cuộc khảo sát mức sống để đo lường nghèo nên cũng không có một cách thức rõ ràng để xác định như thế nào là nghèo. Người giàu thời đó là người nào trong nhà có xe máy hay TV, còn người nghèo là những người ăn xin ngoài đường hay người nào không có đủ gạo để ăn. Trong cuộc khảo sát sớm nhất được thực hiện vào năm 1992 và 1993, có khoảng 64% dân số được coi là nghèo theo chuẩn nghèo quốc tế. Sau hai thập kỷ thì chỉ có khoảng dưới 3% dân số là nghèo theo chuẩn nghèo này trong khi tình trạng đói ăn đã được xóa bỏ.

How We Measure Poverty in Vietnam

Linh Hoang Vu's picture
Also available in: Tiếng Việt



What does it mean to be poor in Vietnam? When I grew up in Hanoi in the late 80s, poverty was all around. Most of the population then was living under the international poverty line ($1.25 per day). Because there were no living standard surveys to measure poverty, there was no clear indication of what it meant to be poor. A rich person at that time was someone with either a motorbike or a television set, while a poor one was a street beggar or someone who did not have enough rice to eat.  In the earliest survey conducted in 1992 and 1993, about 64% of the population was poor by the international poverty line. Twenty years later, less than 3% were considered poor by the same standard while hunger was successfully eradicated.

ถึงเวลาที่ต้องสร้างความแข็งแกร่งให้กับการลดความเสี่ยงจากภัยพิบัติในเอเชียตะวันออกและแปซิฟิก

Axel van Trotsenburg's picture
ใน PDF: Korean | Khmer

ทุกครั้งที่ผมทราบข่าวว่ามีภัยพิบัติทางธรรมชาติเกิดขึ้น ผู้คนบาดเจ็บเสียชีวิต บ้านเรือนพังเสียหาย ชีวิตความเป็นอยู่ของผู้คนที่ประสบภัยต้องเปลี่ยนแปลงไป ผมรู้ว่าเราต้องทำอะไรสักอย่างเพื่อช่วยลดผลกระทบอันน่าสลดใจนี้ แทนที่จะรอให้มันเกิดขึ้นอีก

เรามีโอกาสจะผลักดันเรื่องนี้ในการประชุมนานาชาติเรื่องการลดความเสี่ยงจากภัยพิบัติที่จัดขึ้นปีนี้ ณ เมืองเซนได ประเทศญี่ปุ่น เพื่อสรุปแนวทางการดำเนินงานกรอบการดำเนินงานเฮียวโกะ ระยะที่ 2 (Hyogo Framework for Action-HFA2) ซึ่งเป็นแนวทางในการบริหารจัดการความเสี่ยงจากภัยพิบัติแก่ผู้กำหนดนโยบายและผู้มีส่วนเกี่ยวข้องในระดับนานาชาติ การประชุมครั้งนี้ถือเป็นโอกาสที่จะตั้งเป้าหมายในการลดความเสี่ยงจากภัยพิบัติและต่อสู้กับความยากจนอีกด้วย

ภัยพิบัติจากธรรมชาติมีมูลค่าความเสียหายมหาศาล ในรอบ 30 ปีที่ผ่านมา มีผู้เสียชีวิตไปแล้ว 2 ล้าน 5 แสนคน และสร้างความสูญเสียเป็นมูลค่า 4 ล้านล้านเหรียญสหรัฐฯ นอกจากนี้ยังส่งผลกระทบให้การพัฒนาชะงักลง

ในภูมิภาคเอเชีย การพัฒนาเขตเมืองอย่างรวดเร็วผนวกกับการวางผังเมืองยังไม่มีคุณภาพได้เพิ่มความเสี่ยงให้เมืองต่าง ๆ เป็นอย่างมาก โดยเฉพาะเมืองที่ตั้งอยู่แถบชายฝั่งและลุ่มแม่น้ำที่มีประชากรอาศัยอยู่หนาแน่น พายุไต้ฝุ่นไห่เยี่ยนได้คร่าชีวิตผู้คนกว่า 7,350 คนในฟิลิปปินส์ เมื่อปี 2556 แล้วยังส่งผลโดยตรงให้ความยากจนเพิ่มขึ้นร้อยละ 1.2

Sekaranglah waktunya memperkuat pengendalian risiko bencana di Asia Timur dan Pasifik

Axel van Trotsenburg's picture
In PDF: Korean | Khmer

Setiap kali saya diberitahu terjadinya kembali sebuah bencana alam – tentang korban jiwa masyarakat, rumah-rumah yang hancur, matapencaharian yang hilang – saya teringat bagaimana pentingnya kita perlu bertindak guna mengurangi dampak tragedi tersebut. Kita  tidak bisa menunggu sampai bencana kembali terjadi.

Pada World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction di Sendai, yang akan berupaya mencari penerus Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2) -- panduan bagi para pembuat kebijakan dan pemangku kepentingan internasional dalam bidang manajemen risiko bencana – peluang itu ada di tangan kita. Konferensi ini adalah peluang untuk menjadi tonggak penting dalam hal pengendalian risiko bencana dan pengentasan kemiskinan.

Biaya akibat bencana alam sudah sangat tinggi. Dalam periode 30 tahu, sekitar 2,5 juta korban jiwa dan $4 triliun hilang akibat bencana, dan hal ini berdampak pada upaya pembangunan.

Di Asia, urbanisasi yang pesat serta perencanaan yang kurang baik telah secara signifikan mempertajam kerentanan kota, khususnya perkotaan dengan tingkat kepadatan penduduk yang tinggi dan terletak di pesisir atau tepi sungai. Lebih dari 7.350 korban jiwa jatuh akibat Badai Haiyan  di Filipina pada tahun 2013, dan bencana tersebut secara langsung mengakibatkan naiknya tingkat kemiskinan sebesar 1,2 persen.

加强东亚太平洋地区减少灾害风险的时候到了

Axel van Trotsenburg's picture
每当我听说又发生了自然灾害——人员伤亡,家园被毁,生计丧失——我就知道我们必须要减少这些悲惨后果,而不是坐等灾害再次来袭。

今年在日本仙台举办的世界减少灾害风险大会将给我们这个机会。此次大会寻求落实《兵库行动框架》后续框架,为政策制定者和国际利益攸关方管理灾害风险提供指导。此次大会是为减少灾害风险和战胜贫困设立新的里程碑的一个契机。

自然灾害的代价已经十分高昂——在过去30年里人员和财产损失高达4万亿美元,对发展努力造成了巨大的打击。
 

Now is the time to strengthen disaster risk reduction in East Asia and the Pacific

Axel van Trotsenburg's picture
In PDF: Korean | Khmer

Every time I learn of another natural disaster – the people killed and injured, homes destroyed, livelihoods lost – I know we must act to reduce the tragic impact instead of waiting for the next disaster strikes.

We have that chance with this year’s World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Sendai, which seeks to finalize the successor to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2) that guides policymakers and international stakeholders in managing disaster risk. The conference is an opportunity to set new milestones in disaster risk reduction and fighting poverty.

The cost of natural disasters already is high – 2.5 million people and $4 trillion lost over the past 30 years with a corresponding blow to development efforts.

In Asia, rapid urbanization combined with poor planning dramatically increases the exposure of cities, particularly those along densely populated coasts and river basins. Typhoon Haiyan, which killed more than 7,350 people in the Philippines in 2013, directly contributed to a 1.2 percent rise in poverty.
 

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