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Ending poverty in China: What explains great poverty reduction and a simultaneous increase in inequality in rural areas?

Guobao Wu's picture
Also available in: 中文
This blog is part of a series produced to commemorate End Poverty Day (October 17), focusing on China – which has contributed more than any other country to global poverty reduction – and its efforts to end extreme poverty by 2030. Read this blog series.
 
Reducing poverty and inequality are two important socioeconomic policy objectives for most countries. While some can kill two birds with one stone, others may achieve either or none of these. In China’s special case, poverty reduction goes together with an increase in income inequality for at least the past 20 years. Here, I address some of  the underling factors in this mismatched trajectory.
 
For quite a long time, economic growth, increase in income inequality and reduction of poverty concurred in China. Since 1980, the country has made remarkable progress in reducing poverty. The head count ratio of poverty by the official poverty line, which is about 21% higher than the line that is set at USD 1.9 per day (2011 PPP), has been reduced by 94% from 1980 to 2015 in rural China (figure 1).
 
In contrast, the Gini coefficient of income distribution among rural residents in China rose from 0.241 in 1980 to 0.39 in 2011 or by 62% according to the official estimation, though it once declined between 1980 and 1985 and was said to decline slightly after 2012.

Figure 1: Change in Poverty head count ratio and Gini coefficient in rural China since 1980
Sources: China National Bureau of Statistics (2015), Poverty Monitoring Report of Rural China, China Statistics Press; the data for poverty by USD 1.9 per day is from PovcalNet: the online tool for poverty measurement developed by the Development Research Group of the World Bank.

参与中国扶贫20年有感

Alan Piazza's picture
Also available in: English
这是纪念1017日国际消除贫困日的中国系列博客文章中的的一篇,中国对全球减贫事业的贡献超过世界任何国家,中国正在全力实现到2020年消除极端贫困的宏伟目标。 点击此处浏览系列中其他博客。
 
从1978年的农村改革开始,中国在全球减少极端贫困的努力中发挥了先导作用。世界银行从1981年以来为中国经济的持续高速增长和大规模减贫的成功提供了协助。
 
从1990年开始,我有幸与中国国务院扶贫办合作,参与了非常成功的扶贫项目。我亲眼目睹了在中国所有最贫困的地区彻底消除了最严重的极端贫困现象。我曾深入到中国西部和山区的数百个贫困农村,上世纪90年代的普遍的情况是,很多农户没有解决基本的温饱,大部分农户及其子女营养不良,大部分学龄儿童读不完小学,当地没有基本的医疗卫生服务,道路不通,缺少清洁饮用水和其他基本的基础设施。
Alan与项目区孩子们的合影, 图片: Alan Piazza

Ending poverty in China: A 20-year perspective from staff in the frontlines

Alan Piazza's picture
Also available in: 中文
This blog is part of a series produced to commemorate End Poverty Day (October 17), focusing on China – which has contributed more than any other country to global poverty reduction – and its efforts to end extreme poverty by 2020. Read the blog series here.
 
Since the beginnings of the rural economic reform process in 1978, China has played the lead role in the global effort to overcome absolute poverty. The World Bank has, since 1981, assisted China both in the country’s extraordinary overall economic growth and its tremendously successful poverty reduction program.
 
It has been a great pleasure and privilege to have worked with China’s Leading Group Office for Poverty Reduction (LGOP) since 1990 in their highly successful poverty reduction program. I have seen first-hand the complete elimination of the worst aspects of absolute poverty throughout all of China’s poorest areas. I have hiked into hundreds of poor villages throughout the uplands of western China, where in the 1990s it was common to find villages where many households had not achieved basic food security and most households and children experienced malnutrition, where most school age children would not complete elementary school and where there was no local access to basic health care. Homes lacked road access, drinking water, and other basic infrastructure. 
Alan with kids on the project site, Photo: Alan Piazza

中国减贫成就、挑战与展望

Chengwei Huang's picture
Also available in: English
这是纪念1017日国际消除贫困日的中国系列博客文章的第一篇,中国对全球减贫事业的贡献超过世界任何国家,中国正在全力实现到2020年消除极端贫困的宏伟目标。
摄影:李文勇/世界银行
中国减贫成就举世瞩目。1982年,中国启动“三西”专项扶贫计划,拉开了有计划、有组织、大规模扶贫开发的序幕。1986年,成立国务院贫困地区经济开发领导小组(1993年改称国务院扶贫开发领导小组),认定贫困县,确定扶贫标准,设立财政专项扶贫资金。1994年颁布实施《国家八七扶贫攻坚计划(1994-2000年)》,2001年和2011年,先后两次颁布实施十年农村扶贫开发纲要。三十多年来,中国贫困人口大幅度减少,贫困地区和贫困人口的生产生活条件及公共服务水平明显改善。
 

Ending poverty in China: Lessons for other countries and the challenges still ahead

Chengwei Huang's picture
Also available in: 中文
This blog is the first piece of a series produced to commemorate End Poverty Day (October 17), focusing on China – which has contributed more than any other country to global poverty reduction – and its efforts to end extreme poverty by 2020.   
photo: Wenyong Li/World Bank
China’s success in poverty reduction has attracted worldwide attention. In 1982, China launched the “Sanxi Program” in the poorest regions in Gansu and Ningxia, marking the beginning of planned, organized and large-scale poverty alleviation efforts nationwide. In 1986, the government established the State Council Leading Group of Poverty Alleviation and Development, identified poor counties, set a national poverty line, and created special funds for poverty alleviation. In 1994, China launched the Seven-Year Priority Poverty Alleviation Program that was designed to lift 80 million people out of absolute poverty within seven years from 1994 to 2000. In 2001 and 2011, two ten-year poverty alleviation programs were launched to continue the war against poverty. During those three decades, the number of poor people fell sharply, and living conditions and access to public services improved markedly in the poorer regions.
 

China: how have farmers benefited from the World Bank Integrated Modern Agriculture Development Project?

Alessandra Gage's picture
Also available in: 中文
 Alessandra  Gage/FAO
Evergreen Cooperative member, Photo: Alessandra Gage/FAO
On a warm, rainy day in Shantian Village of Luo Fang Town in Jiangxi Province, farmer Liu Jian, along with five other locals, welcomed our World Bank mission team, including technical experts from the Investment Centre of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), into his home.

All six have benefited from the Integrated Modern Agriculture Development Project  (IMAD)  Project since 2014, when implementation began by the County Office for Comprehensive Agriculture Development.

可持续发展农业项目造福农民

Alessandra Gage's picture
Also available in: English
 Alessandra  Gage/FAO
常青种植合作社的农户, 图片:Alessandra Gage/联合国粮农组织
在一个温暖潮湿的雨天,江西省罗坊镇山田村农民刘建(音译)和其他五位当地农民在他的家中接待了世界银行项目检查团,联合国粮农组织投资中心的技术专家也参加了这次家访。

他们都是2014年县农业综合开发办公室启动实施的综合现代农业发展 项目的受益人。

Steak, fries and air pollution

Garo Batmanian's picture
 Guangqing Liu
Photo © : Guangqing Liu

While most people link air pollution only to burning fossil fuels, other activities such as agriculture and biomass burning also contribute to it. The complexity of air pollution can be explained by analyzing the composition of the PM2.5, one the most important air pollution indicators. 
 

辽宁城市建设职业技术学院的“生态节能实验楼”:以学校改革引领建筑教育创新

Liping Xiao's picture
Also available in: English

生态节能建筑在中国方兴未艾,对这个新兴领域的教育培训需求不断增大。因此,辽宁城市建设职业技术学院利用世界银行贷款辽宁山东职业技术教育与培训项目的资金,在建筑教育领域,围绕校企合作,开展了课程设计、教学方法和学校管理等方面的改革,这些改革集中反映在学校的“生态实验楼”的建设上。
 

Liaoning Urban Construction School’s Eco-Laboratory: innovations in architectural education as a result of school reforms

Liping Xiao's picture
Also available in: 中文

Eco-architecture is a booming field in China, and there is a growing demand for education and training in this relatively new field. In response, the Liaoning Urban Construction School (LUCS) used funding from the World Bank-supported Liaoning and Shandong Technical and Vocational Education and Training Project to reform curriculum, teaching methods and school management in architectural education, with a focus on school-industry cooperation.  All these reforms were reflected in the construction of an “eco-laboratory”. 
 

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