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Indonesia

Semua perlu terlibat: bukti baru perlunya pendekatan multi sektoral untuk mengurangi stunting pada anak

Emmanuel Skoufias's picture
Also available in: English



Di Indonesia, malnutrisi kronis meluas dengan lebih dari sepertiga anak-anak mengalami stunting atau pertumbuhan yang terhambat. Meskipun tingkat kemiskinan menurun dari 16,6% menjadi 11,4% dari tahun 2007 hingga 2013, tingkat stunting pada anak-anak di bawah usia lima tahun tetap sangat tinggi, di atas 37% pada tahun 2013, meskipun angka tersebut telah menurun dalam dua tahun terakhir. Stunting memiliki konsekuensi seumur hidup yang penting bagi kesehatan, juga untuk pengembangan kognitif, pendidikan, akumulasi sumberdaya manusia, dan pada akhirnya juga produktivitas ekonomi.
 
Namun, untuk mengurangi stunting, tidak cukup hanya memberi fokus pada sektor kesehatan. Perlu juga perbaikan di sektor lain seperti pertanian, pendidikan, perlindungan sosial, air, sanitasi, dan kebersihan. Seperti yang semula ditekankan dalam kerangka konseptual UNICEF, untuk memastikan bahwa seorang anak menerima nutrisi yang cukup bergantung pada empat faktor penting: asuh, kesehatan, lingkungan, dan ketahanan pangan, bidang-bidang yang mencakup beberapa sektor.

All hands on deck: new evidence on the need for a multi-sectoral approach to reducing childhood stunting

Emmanuel Skoufias's picture
Also available in: Bahasa Indonesia



In Indonesia, chronic malnutrition is widespread with more than one-third of young children being stunted. Despite the reduction of the poverty rate from 16.6% to 11.4% from 2007 to 2013, the rate of stunting amongst children under the age of five has remained alarmingly high, exceeding 37% in 2013, although that figure has declined in the last two years. Stunting has important lifelong consequences for health, as well as for cognitive development, education, human capital accumulation, and ultimately for economic productivity.

However, to reduce stunting it’s not only important to focus on the health sector. It also requires improvements in other sectors such as agriculture, education, social protection, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). As originally emphasized by the UNICEF conceptual framework, to ensure that a child receives adequate nutrition depends on four critical factors: care, health, environment, and food security, areas that straddle multiple sectors.

Learning for all: shared principles for equitable and excellent basic education systems

Raja Bentaouet Kattan's picture
More than 200 participants – including government officials, policymakers and education experts from over 20 countries gathered in Jakarta, Indonesia, for the global conference Learning for All: Shared Principles for Equitable and Excellent Basic Education Systems.

The conference addressed themes related to improving learning outcomes for all students, including how to support effective teaching and early childhood development, balancing school autonomy and accountability, and how education systems can build the skills needed for the 21st century.   
 



For the host country, Indonesia, the forum provided a valuable chance to look more closely at issues facing its education system.

Festival Desa Inovatif Tampilkan Ide-ide Segar Penggunaan Dana Desa

Hera Diani's picture
Also available in: English


Di siang hari yang terik itu, sejumlah jambang jongkok menyambut pengunjung Taman Budaya di Mataram, Nusa Tenggara Barat.
 
Para pengunjung tersebut tidak sedang mencari jamban baru, bukan pula sedang melakukan proyek perbaikan rumah. Mereka termasuk dari 350 warga desa yang ‘berbelanja’ ide-ide dan inovasi-inovasi untuk meningkatkan layanan dan infrastruktur dasar di desa-desa asal mereka.
 
Festival Desa Inovatif 2017 diselenggarakan oleh Pemerintah Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat, bekerja sama dengan Program Generasi Cerdas dan Sehat dari Kementerian Desa. Festival tersebut menampilkan solusi-solusi inovatif untuk menanggulangi beberapa kendala pembangunan yang mendesak yang dihadapi oleh masyarakat-masyarakat desa.

Innovation festival provides fresh ideas on how to use vital funds in Indonesian villages

Hera Diani's picture
Also available in: Bahasa Indonesia



One recent scorching afternoon, a display of colorful squat toilets welcomed curious visitors in the main park of the city of Mataram, in Indonesia’s West Nusa Tenggara province.
 
These visitors were not looking to buy new toilet bowls, nor were they working on home improvement projects. They were among 350 villagers who went ‘shopping’ for ideas and innovations to improve basic services and infrastructure in their home villages.
 
The 2017 Village Innovation Festival was organized by the provincial government of West Nusa Tenggara, in collaboration with the Ministry of Village's Generasi Cerdas dan Sehat Program.The festival highlighted innovative solutions to address some of the most pressing development challenges faced by village communities.

How do we achieve sustained growth? Through human capital, and East Asia and the Pacific proves it

Michael Crawford's picture
Students at Beijing Bayi High School in China. Photo: World Bank


In 1950, the average working-age person in the world had  almost three years of education, but in East Asia and Pacific (EAP), the  average person had less than half that amount. Around this time, countries in  the EAP  region put themselves on a path that focused on growth  driven by human capital. They made significant and steady investments in  schooling to close the educational attainment gap with the rest of the world. While  improving their school systems, they also put their human capital to work in  labor markets. As a result, economic growth has been stellar: for four decades  EAP has grown at roughly twice the pace of the global average. What is more, no  slowdown is in sight for rising prosperity.

High economic growth and strong human capital accumulation  are deeply intertwined. In a recent paper, Daron Acemoglu and David Autor explore  the way skills and labor markets interact: Human capital is the central  determinant of economic growth and is the main—and very likely the only—means  to achieve shared growth when technology is changing quickly and raising the  demand for skills. Skills promote productivity and growth, but if there are not  enough skilled workers, growth soon chokes off. If, by contrast, skills are abundant and  average skill-levels keep rising, technological change can drive productivity  and growth without stoking inequality.

Satu Peta: mempercepat administrasi pertanahan terpadu untuk Indonesia

Anna Wellenstein's picture
Also available in: English
Foto: Curt Carnemark / World Bank

Hutan-hutan primer telah lama hilang dari lingkungan desa Teluk Bakung di pinggiran Pontianak, ibukota Kalimantan Barat di Indonesia. Hal ini tampak ketika saya tiba di wilayah tersebut pada akhir November 2016, sebagai bagian dari kunjungan lapangan. Kami melihat bagaimana sebagian besar penduduk desa telah meninggalkan pertanian yang berat di lahan gambut untuk bekerja pada perkebunan-perkebunan besar kelapa sawit dan ladang kelapa sawit mereka sendiri. Yang lain memilih berinvestasi dalam produksi sarang burung yang menguntungkan. Namun mereka melakukannya di tengah-tengah tata kelola penggunaan lahan yang membingungkan: demarkasi batas wilayah kawasan hutan dan wilayah administratif tidak lengkap, sementara kelompok kepentingan masyarakat dan pihak berwenang memperdebatkan sejarah alokasi areal konsesi perkebunan. Kumpulan data publik menunjukkan keragaman penggunaan lahan dan hutan di wilayah tersebut, termasuk cagar alamnya. Namun dalam kenyataannya, hampir seluruh lahan yang ada semakin dikhususkan untuk produksi kelapa sawit. 

Which region in the world has the smartest kids? According to the OECD, it’s East Asia

Harry A. Patrinos's picture
Also available in: 中文
Students from Tran Dai Nghia High School near Can Tho, Vietnam (Photo: D7K_4030 by makzhou, used under CC BY-NC 4.0 / cropped from original)


With the release last month of the latest PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) results by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), it is apparent that many of the highest achieving students in the world are in East Asia.
 
Just as in the recently released TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) results, Singapore leads the world in every subject in PISA, outperforming other economies and countries by a significant margin. Students in Singapore perform at a level that is up to two years ahead of their regional and OECD counterparts in science, mathematics and reading. Moreover, almost all Singaporean students have reached a basic level of proficiency or higher. And they just keep getting better, having significantly reduced performance below basic proficiency.
 
Japan also outperforms most participating economies in science, mathematics and reading. However, its score in reading has declined since the last round. Still, as in Singapore, 90% of students have reached a basic level of proficiency or above.

One Map: accelerating unified land administration for Indonesia

Anna Wellenstein's picture
Also available in: Bahasa Indonesia
Photo: Curt Carnemark / World Bank


The primary forests have long gone from the surroundings of Teluk Bakung village on the outskirts of Pontianak, the capital of Indonesia’s West Kalimantan province. This was evident when I arrived in the region in late November 2016, as part of a field visit. We saw how most villagers have abandoned the difficult peatlands agriculture to work on large oil palm plantations and their own oil palm fields. Others have opted to invest in lucrative edible bird nest production. But they do so against a backdrop of confusing land-use management: forest estate and administrative boundary demarcation is incomplete, and community interest groups and authorities debate over the historical allocation of plantation concessions. Public data sets show a wide variety of land and forest uses in the area, including reserves. But in reality, virtually all of the land is increasingly being devoted to oil palm production.

Pameran Pasang Surut Urbanisasi Indonesia

Gauri Gadgil's picture
Also available in: English
Photo Credit: Andres Sevtsuk, Harvard City Form Lab

Minggu lalu saya berkunjung ke Bogor, 60 kilometer dari Jakarta dan hanya perlu satu jam lima belas menit untuk menuju kesana. Namun, diperlukan waktu tiga kali lebih lama untuk kembali ke Jakarta, karena macet akibat hujan deras.

Di lokasi lain di Jakarta, banjir terjadi di beberapa tempat. Mobil-mobil terjebak semalaman di basement tempat parkir café dan restoran di Kemang – sebuah kawasan terkenal yang sering kebanjiran akibat sistem drainase yang buruk dan kurangnya ruang hijau.

Inilah secuplik kehidupan di Jakarta yang tumbuh pesat, sebuah kawasan metropolitan yang di tahun 2028 bisa menggantikan Tokyo sebagai kota Asia dengan penduduk terbanyak.
 

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