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East Asia and Pacific

Tahun-tahun yang terbuang: Mengapa anak-anak Indonesia belajar lebih sedikit?

Samer Al-Samarrai's picture
Also available in: English

Sekarang, saat semua sudah tenang setelah hasil  hasil PISA keluar, mari kita coba pikirkan faktor-faktor penyebab di balik performa buruk Indonesia.  Bagi yang belum tahu, Indonesia berada di posisi lebih rendah dibanding semua negara yang berpartisipasi, kecuali Peru dalam hal matematika dan sains, serta negara kelima dari bawah dalam hal membaca. Hal yang lebih mengkhawatirkan mungkin adalah rendahnya tingkat pembelajaran yang dilaporkan untuk anak-anak Indonesia usia 15 tahun.  Dalam hal matematika, tiga perempat dari siswa berada dalam atau di bawah acuan terendah – tingkat yang diasosiasikan dengan keterbatasan kemampuan serta terbatasnya kecakapan berpikir lebih tinggi. 
 

Wasted years: Why do Indonesian children end up learning less?

Samer Al-Samarrai's picture
Also available in: Bahasa Indonesia

Now that the dust has settled around the PISA results we have been thinking about the reasons behind Indonesia's poor showing. For those of you who haven't seen them, Indonesia ranked lower than all participating countries except Peru in mathematics and science, and was fifth from last on reading. Perhaps more worrying were the low absolute levels of learning reported for 15-year-olds. In mathematics, three-quarters of students were rated at or below the lowest benchmark – a level associated with only rudimentary levels of proficiency and a lack of higher order thinking skills.

ความปลอดภัยบนท้องถนน…สร้างได้ ไม่ใช่เรื่องบังเอิญ

Chanin Manopiniwes's picture
Also available in: English

Photo credit: Dennis Thern
ภาพถ่ายโดย Dennis Thern

ในประเทศไทยทุกๆ หนึ่งชั่วโมง อุบัติเหตุบนท้องถนนคร่า 1 ชีวิต จากประชากรทั้งประเทศ 70 ล้านคน อัตราความสูญเสียนี้สามารถบ่งชี้ถึงความปลอดภัยบนท้องถนนได้อย่างไร เมื่อเปรียบเทียบกับประเทศอื่นๆ?

ข้อมูลจากหน่วยเฝ้าระวังและสะท้อนสถานการณ์ความปลอดภัยทางถนนรายงานว่า อัตราการบาดเจ็บและการเสียชีวิตจากอุบัติเหตุบนท้องถนนลดลงเหลือแค่ 2 ใน 3 ภายในเวลา 10 ปี (เมื่อเทียบกับตัวเลขในช่วง 10 ปีที่ผ่านมา) อย่างไรก็ตาม ความสูญเสียจากอุบัติเหตุกลับเพิ่มความรุนแรงขึ้น โอกาสที่ผู้บาดเจ็บมีอาการสาหัส หรือทุพลภาพเพิ่มสูงเป็นประวัติการณ์

เมื่อเทียบกับประเทศอื่นแล้ว ประเทศไทยมีอัตราการเสียชีวิตบนท้องถนนเป็นอันดับ 3 ของโลก! รายงาน Global Status Report on Road Safety โดยองค์การอนามัยโลก พบว่าประเทศไทยมีสถิติการเสียชีวิตจากอุบัติเหตุบนท้องถนนสูงถึง 38 ราย ต่อประชากร 100,000 รายต่อปี รองจากประเทศเอริเทรีย (48 ราย) และประเทศลิเบีย (41 ราย)

Will China’s economic slowdown affect its reforms?

Bingjie Hu's picture
Also available in: 中文

The latest macroeconomic data released by China’s National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) on April 18 suggest that China’s economic growth has moderated in the first quarter of 2014. GDP growth has decelerated from 7.7 percent (year-over-year) in the last quarter of 2013 to 7.4 percent (year-over-year) in the first quarter of 2014.

On a sequential basis, the quarter-on-quarter seasonally adjusted growth slowed from 1.7 percent in Q4 last year to 1.4 percent in Q1 2014.

The deceleration in the first quarter of this year is in line with World Bank expectations (see our latest East Asia Economic Update) (Figure1).


Figure 1: Official growth data on the demand side reflect subdued export growth and a moderation in investment growth. Consumption led growth in the first quarter of 2014, contributing 5.7 percentage points to growth, followed by investment, contributing 3.1 percentage points. Net exports dragged down growth by 1.4 percentage points.

Many economists speculate that the weakening trend in growth may put more pressure on the government to implement more and stronger growth supportive fiscal and monetary policies, following the stimulus measures unveiled recently that include accelerated expenditures on railway construction and social housing, as well as tax breaks for small businesses.

中国增长减速会使改革步伐放慢吗?

Bingjie Hu's picture
Also available in: English
中国国家统计局(NBS)发布的最新宏观经济数据显示,中国的经济增长在2014年一季度出现放缓,GDP增长从2013年四季度的7.7%(同比)降低到2014年一季度的7.4%(同比)。经过季节性调整后的季度环比增长从2013年四季度的1.7%放缓至2014年一季度的1.4%。

一季度的减速符合我们的预期(参见最新一期《东亚经济半年报》)。官方的需求增长数据呈现出口增长乏力和投资增长放缓。一季度消费主导的增长为经济增长贡献了5.7个百分点,其次是投资贡献了3.1个百分点。净出口拖累增长1.4个百分点(图1)。
图1:中国一季度GDP增长减速


Thailand: Road safety will never happen by accident

Chanin Manopiniwes's picture
Also available in: ภาษาไทย

Photo credit: Dennis Thern
Photo credit: Dennis Thern

In Thailand, road accidents cause about one death every hour—but for a country of almost 70 million people, how does it fare compared to other countries?

Well, before we get to answering that; the good news for the country is that, according to Thailand Road Safety Observatory, overall road accidents, fatalities and injuries all fell roughly by a third over the past decade. But as for the bad news, the probability of crash victims becoming fatally wounded or permanently disabled is higher than ever.

However, the real bad news—despite the authorities’ efforts to prevent accidents—is that, according to the World Health Organization’s Global Status Report on Road Safety 2013, Thailand continues to have one of the highest rates in road fatalities. In fact, with 38 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants per year, it ranks third in the world, just behind the African countries of Eritrea and Libya, at 48.4 and 40.5 respectively.

从农田到餐桌:改善中国的食品安全

Garo Batmanian's picture
Also available in: English
由于最近发生的严重削弱国内品牌的食品恐慌事件,中国企业所面临的一项挑战就是重新夺回巨大的国内食品市场。

根据最近的一项调查,在发生了若干严重的食品安全事件之后,大约64%的中国人认为食品安全是影响他们日常生活的头等大事,需要政府采取紧迫的行动。

中国政府正在很认真地考虑这些关切,并在其食品控制体制内启动了重要的改革。它在2009年公布了一项新的《食品安全法》,并在2013年成立了一个新的食品安全权威机构,以处理这类问题。这种改革目前正在向省和地方层面推进。这些改革最终将影响超过100万国家官员,重组十多个政府部委,修订超过5,000个法规。它们将全面改革食品控制体制,引进新的有关食品安全的全球最佳做法政策。

From farm to chopsticks: Improving food safety in China

Garo Batmanian's picture
Also available in: 中文
A challenge for Chinese businesses is to re-capture the vast domestic market owing to the recent food scares that have seriously undermined the domestic brands.

After several high-profile food safety incidents, according to one recent survey, around 64% of Chinese consider food safety as the number one priority that affects their daily lives and requires immediate action by the government.

The Chinese government is taking these concerns very seriously and has launched important reforms in its system of food control. It promulgated a new Food Safety Law in 2009, and created a new food safety authority in 2013 to deal with these issues. These reforms are now rolling out to provincial and local levels. These reforms will eventually affect more than one million state officials, restructure more than a dozen government ministries, and revise more than 5,000 regulations. The reforms will result in a complete overhaul of the food control system and introduction of new global best practice policies for food safety.

中国城市将采取大胆举措

Sri Mulyani Indrawati's picture
Also available in: English


Photo courtesy of Li Wenyong

 

预计到2030年,中国超3亿人将迁入城市居住。届时,中国70%的人口将在城市居住。考虑到中国人口规模,这意味着全世界每六位城市居民中,就有一位是中国人。不论是在中国,还是在其它国家,与人口构成变化相伴而来的挑战已然显见并广为人知。

城市化是一大全球性趋势。因此,在我们思考中国推进城市化采取的新方法之际,我们认为,这些方法对面临类似问题的其它国家具有借鉴价值。换言之,中国在城市化方面取得的成功,可为全球重新思考如何把城市建设成为健康、高效和成功的城市铺平道路。

Bold Steps for China’s Cities

Sri Mulyani Indrawati's picture
Also available in: 中文
Also available in: العربية  Español


Photo courtesy of Li Wenyong

 

In 2030, more than 300 million Chinese are expected to have moved into cities. By then, 70 percent will live in urban settings. Given China’s size, it will mean that one in six urban dwellers worldwide will be Chinese. The challenges coming with that demographic shift are already visible and well known, in China and beyond.

Urbanization is a global trend. So when we think about new approaches to urbanization here in China, we believe that they are of value for other countries facing similar issues. In other words, China’s success in urbanization could pave the way for global rethinking on how cities can be built to be healthy, efficient, and successful.

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