Myanmar’s unusually fertile soils and abundant water source are legendary in Southeast Asia. It is even said that Myanmar has the most favorable agricultural conditions in all of Asia. Almost anything can be grown in the country, from fruits to vegetables, from rice to pulses. The agriculture sector dominates the economy, contributing 38% of GDP, and employing more than 60% of the workforce. The importance of agriculture in the economy and as an employer will diminish in coming years as a result of structural transformation. However, the sector will continue to play a remarkable role in reducing poverty in Myanmar for many years to come.
East Asia and Pacific
“So what now after the May 2016 elections?”
We asked this question at an event for the Knowledge for Development Community (KDC) network a few months before the May 9 national and local elections. The KDC was formed by the World Bank office in Manila in 2002 to promote knowledge sharing of development issues. It’s a network composed of 19 universities, non-government organizations and think tanks across the country. We turned to the largest segment in our network – students – and asked: “What do you want from your next leaders?”
Spearheaded by Silliman University based in the Visayas in Central Philippines, the KDC organized youth discussions in three cities in each of the major island groups: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. St. Paul University Philippines handled the discussions in Tuguegarao in Luzon, Silliman University for Dumaguete, and the Western Mindanao State University for Zamboanga based in Mindanao. The project involved 30 youth representatives in each city: 15 in-school and 15 out-of-school. Its composition was not just sensitive to, but also affirmed, the equal value of the out-of-school youth in development processes.
Untuk mengetahui bagaimana akuntabilitias sosial bisa memperbaiki kualitas layanan kesehatan di Indonesia, silakan kunjungi kawasan perbatasaan di provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT).
Kejadian ini berlangsung di suatu siang yang panas pada bulan Agustus 2015 di kelurahan Bijaepasu, sekitar enam jam perjalanan darat dari ibukota provinsi NTT, Kupang. Di tengah panasnya udara yang mencapai 40 derajat celcius, antrian manusia melingkari sebuah puskesmas.
Sekelompok ibu dengan bayi mereka juga para manula berdiri sepanjang dinding yang hampir roboh. Antrian panjang bergerak dengan lambat. Petugas kesehatan terlihat kewalahan melayani pasien dan hampir tidak ada peralatan medis yang memadai di puskesmas tersebut.
To get a full picture of how social accountability can improve the quality of health services in Indonesia, one only has to travel to the border areas in East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) province.
On a scorching afternoon in August 2015 in Bijaepasu sub-district, a six hour drive from the provincial capital Kupang, a queue was forming in front of the village health center or puskesmas. The crowd seemed undeterred by the temperature that hovered around 40 degrees Celcius.
Leaning against its deteriorating walls were mothers and babies, elderly women and men. The queue was long and slow moving. The health center workers appeared overwhelmed. There were barely any medical equipment or supplies.
Malaysia has been able to reach remarkable achievements over the past decades, including extreme poverty eradication and promotion of inclusive growth. It aims to reach a high-income nation status by 2020, which goes beyond merely reaching a per capita GDP threshold. As the 11th Malaysia Plan points out, the goal is to achieve a growth path that is sustainable over time, reflects greater productivity, and is inclusive. High-income status can be achieved if we ensure that future generations have access to all the resources, such as education and productive opportunities, necessary to realize their ambitions and if Malaysia’s economy is globally competitive and resource-sustainable.
Over the years, immigrants have played a crucial role in the economic development of Malaysia, with around 2.1 million immigrants registered and over 1 million undocumented as of 2013. Education levels among the Malaysian population have increased remarkably over the last two decades, and immigrant workers have become one of the primary sources of labor for low-skilled occupations, most commonly in labor-intensive sectors such as construction, agriculture and manufacturing. Economic studies show that a 10% net increase in low-skilled foreign workers could raise Malaysia’s GDP by 1.1% and create employment and increase wages for most Malaysians.
With the throttle at full tilt, the boat cut through the surf, spraying salt water into the air.
Around me, the unfolding scenery is breathtaking. White sandy beaches, turquoise blue seas, swaying coconut palms – the textbook image of paradise in the South Pacific.
What more could one ask for in paradise?
Water, is what they will tell you. “They” are the people of Nanngu Village on the island of Santa Cruz in the far east of Solomon Islands.
Out here, water to drink, cook food with, wash and keep clean is hard to come by.
The last time they had proper running water was 20 years ago. That came to an end at the hands of a Category Three cyclone, Nina, which hit the islands in 1993.
As I write this, we’re on our way to Nanngu to see a new World Bank-supported project bringing water to the village.
“Lima tahun pertama akan sangat menentukan (perkembangan) 80 tahun ke depan,” filantropis dan jutawan Bill Gates, pernah berkata, terkait pentingnya pendidikan anak usia dini (PAUD).
Pendidikan anak usia dini kerap disebut dalam Strategi Pendidikan 2020 Bank Dunia, yang memaparkan agenda 10 tahun ke depan di bidang pendidikan, dengan tujuan “Pembelajaraan untuk Semua”. Dengan moto “investasi awal, investasi yang pintar dan investasi untuk semua,” strategi ini mengatakan bahwa investasi pendidikan anak usia dini akan menopang pembangunan dan pertumbuhan sebuah negara, terutama untuk negara perkenomian berkembang seperti Indonesia.
“The first five years have so much to do with how the next 80 turn out,” billionaire philanthropist Bill Gates once said, summing up the importance of early childhood education.
Early education is featured prominently in the World Bank’s Education Strategy 2020, which lays out a ten-year agenda focused on the goal of “learning for all.” With the tagline ‘Invest early, invest smartly, and invest for all,’ the strategy says that an investment in early education will support the development and growth of a nation, particularly for emerging economies such as Indonesia.
The changes underway in Myanmar can be felt almost everywhere: in Nay Pyi Taw, portraits of Bogyoke Aung San grace the walls of parliament; in Yangon, traffic is choking roads while construction cranes dominate the skyline; and across the country, ports, airports and border crossings are booming with trade. Felt almost everywhere that is, except in rural areas, where the impacts of change have been less visible.