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Climate Change

Việt Nam có thể học hỏi được gì từ Singapore về quản lý rủi ro ngập lụt

Linh X. Le's picture
 Toàn cảnh công viên Bishan-Ang Mo Kio, Singapore. Ảnh: Stefan/Flickr

Đối với người dân Việt Nam, đất nước Singapore không chỉ là một "con rồng Châu Á" mà còn rất gần gũi nhờ mối quan hệ thân mật giữa lãnh đạo nước nhà với Cựu Thủ tướng Lý Quang Diệu, người đứng đằng sau tất cả những thành công của Singapore ngày nay. Là biểu tượng của sự hiện đại và văn minh, đặc biệt với điều kiện tài nguyên thiên nhiên hạn chế, Singapore là mô hình đáng để Việt Nam học tập trên con đường phát triển theo hướng cạnh tranh, bền vững và văn minh.
 

我们必须时刻准备再次迎来严重厄尔尼诺现象

Axel van Trotsenburg's picture
Also available in: English
厄尔尼诺现象又回来了,而且可能会来的更猛。
 
干旱季节印尼东爪哇省Madiun的Dawuhan大坝干裂的河床上搁浅的木船。  2015年10月28日 © ANTARA FOTO/路透社/Corbis


今年上半年太平洋水域开始出现新一轮周期性变暖,亚洲、非洲和拉丁美洲都已感受到其影响。首次观察到太平洋海水变暖是在数百年前,自1950年以来正式开始监测跟踪。

气象专家预测此次厄尔尼诺现象将会持续到2016年春并有可能造成大破坏,因为气候变化可能导致一些地区暴雨和洪水加剧,另一些地区出现严重干旱和缺水。

厄尔尼诺的影响是全球性的,预计南美地区会遭遇暴雨和大洪水,非洲地区会经受酷热和干旱。

We must prepare now for another major El Niño

Axel van Trotsenburg's picture
Also available in: 中文
El Niño is back and may be stronger than ever.
 
A wooden boat is seen stranded on the dry cracked riverbed of the Dawuhan Dam during drought season in Madiun, Indonesia's East Java province.  October 28, 2015 © ANTARA FOTO/Reuters/Corbis



The latest cyclical warming of Pacific Ocean waters, first observed centuries ago and formally tracked since 1950, began earlier this year and already has been felt across Asia, Africa and Latin America.

Weather experts predict this El Niño will continue into the spring of 2016 and could wreak havoc, because climate change is likely to exacerbate the intensity of storms and flooding in some places and of severe drought and water shortages in others.

El Niño’s impacts are global, with heavy rain and severe flooding expected in South America and scorching weather and drought conditions likely in the Horn of Africa region.

Ứng phó với biến đổi khí hậu – đảm bảo tương lai cho nông dân

Le Thu Thi Nguyen's picture
Also available in: English
Việt Nam là một trong những nước chịu tác động nặng nề nhất của biến đổi khí hậu. Chính phủ đã sử dụng tiền đầu tư để ứng phó với vấn đề này như thế nào? Xem toàn bộ đồ họa thông tin.

Trong đợt công tác chuẩn bị cho dự án trồng mới cây cà phê gần đây tôi đã gặp anh Y Cham, người Ê-đê, tại Dak Lak, vùng trồng cà phê robusta chính tại Tây Nguyên.

Y Cham đã làm nghề nông từ lâu. Anh chia sẻ với chúng tôi về lo lắng của mình cho bốn ha cà phê, đã không được tưới nước đầy đủ do hạn hán kéo dài.

“Nếu không thu hoạch được cà phê như năm ngoái thì cũng không biết làm sao có đủ tiền cho con gái tiếp tục theo học tại Trường Y Hà nội”.

Tây nguyên, nơi có tới 500.000 ha cà phê, đang bị hạn hán nghiêm trọng. Đợt hạn hán năm nay là đợt nghiêm trọng nhất trong 10 năm qua. Khai thác thủy lợi quá nhiều, sử dụng nước lãng phí cộng với thời kỳ khô hạn kéo dài đang gây nhiều khó khăn cho người trồng cà phê nếu họ không chuẩn bị kĩ đễ thích ứng tốt hơn với điều kiện thời tiết thay đổi.

Anh Y Cham cho biết, nước là thách thức lớn nhất trong các yếu tố tác động mạnh nhất tới năng suất cà phê theo thứ tự “nước, giống, vốn, kỹ thuật”. Nguồn nước và giống có khả năng chịu đựng được thời tiết là các yếu tố quan trọng nhất.

Thiếu nước cũng là một trong những chủ đề bàn cãi gay gắt gần đây trong hội nông dân trồng cà phê mà Y Cham tham gia thành lập gồm khoảng 250 thành viên, bên cạnh các vấn đề về biện pháp canh tác tốt do trung tâm khuyến nông tỉnh hỗ trợ cho người trồng cà phê. 

Adapting to climate change – securing dreams for farmers

Le Thu Thi Nguyen's picture
Also available in: Tiếng Việt
Vietnam is likely to be among the countries hardest hit by climate change. How has its government invested to respond to this issue? View the full infographic


Y Cham, whom I met during a mission to plan for our support for the coffee rejuvenation project, comes from the Ede ethnic minority in Dak Lak, the major robusta coffee-producing province in the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

The long-time farmer shared with me his worries about his four hectares of coffee garden which had not been watered enough due to the prolonged drought.

“If I cannot harvest as much coffee as last year, I cannot sustain the studies of my daughter who is a student at medical college in Hanoi”.
The Central Highland, home of 500,000 hectares of coffee, has recently been affected by severe drought. The drought this year is considered most the most serious in the last 10 years. Over-irrigation and inefficient water use, compounded by increasing periods of drought, makes coffee farmers highly vulnerable, unless they are prepared to better adapt to the changing weather patterns.  

Among the crucial factors for coffee yield, water, according to Y Cham, has become the biggest challenge in the priority order of “water, variety, funding, and science.” Water availability and advanced varieties resistant to the conditions of climate change are considered the most important factors.

Зүүн Ази, Номхон далайн бүс нутагт гамшгийн эрсдлийг бууруулах цаг болсон

Axel van Trotsenburg's picture
Хаа нэгтээ ямар нэг гамшиг тохиолдож, хүний амь эрсэдсэн, бэртэж гэмтсэн, иргэдийн орон байр сүйтгэгдсэн, амьжиргаагаа алдсан гэсэн мэдээг сонсоод дараагийн гамшиг болохоос өмнө дахин ийм эмгэнэлт үр дагавар амсахгүйн тулд бид урьдчилан сэргийлэх ёстой гэдгийг би мэддэг.
 

Сендай хотноо болох Гамшгийн эрсдлийг бууруулах дэлхийн бага хурлаар бид бодлого боловсруулагчид, олон улсын оролцогч талууд гамшгийн эрсдлийг бууруулах ажлыг удирдан зохион байгуулах учиртай гэсэн Хюгогийн зарчмыг эцэслэн тохирох боломж байна. Сендайн бага хурал гамшгийн эрсдлийг болон ядуурлыг бууруулах шинэ арга замыг эрэлхийлэх боломж юм.

Байгалийн гамшгийн хор хөнөөл дэндүү их байна. Сүүлийн 30 жилд 2,5 сая хүний амийг авч, 4 их наядын хохирол учирч тэр чинээгээр хөгжлийг хойш татжээ.

ถึงเวลาที่ต้องสร้างความแข็งแกร่งให้กับการลดความเสี่ยงจากภัยพิบัติในเอเชียตะวันออกและแปซิฟิก

Axel van Trotsenburg's picture
ใน PDF: Korean | Khmer

ทุกครั้งที่ผมทราบข่าวว่ามีภัยพิบัติทางธรรมชาติเกิดขึ้น ผู้คนบาดเจ็บเสียชีวิต บ้านเรือนพังเสียหาย ชีวิตความเป็นอยู่ของผู้คนที่ประสบภัยต้องเปลี่ยนแปลงไป ผมรู้ว่าเราต้องทำอะไรสักอย่างเพื่อช่วยลดผลกระทบอันน่าสลดใจนี้ แทนที่จะรอให้มันเกิดขึ้นอีก

เรามีโอกาสจะผลักดันเรื่องนี้ในการประชุมนานาชาติเรื่องการลดความเสี่ยงจากภัยพิบัติที่จัดขึ้นปีนี้ ณ เมืองเซนได ประเทศญี่ปุ่น เพื่อสรุปแนวทางการดำเนินงานกรอบการดำเนินงานเฮียวโกะ ระยะที่ 2 (Hyogo Framework for Action-HFA2) ซึ่งเป็นแนวทางในการบริหารจัดการความเสี่ยงจากภัยพิบัติแก่ผู้กำหนดนโยบายและผู้มีส่วนเกี่ยวข้องในระดับนานาชาติ การประชุมครั้งนี้ถือเป็นโอกาสที่จะตั้งเป้าหมายในการลดความเสี่ยงจากภัยพิบัติและต่อสู้กับความยากจนอีกด้วย

ภัยพิบัติจากธรรมชาติมีมูลค่าความเสียหายมหาศาล ในรอบ 30 ปีที่ผ่านมา มีผู้เสียชีวิตไปแล้ว 2 ล้าน 5 แสนคน และสร้างความสูญเสียเป็นมูลค่า 4 ล้านล้านเหรียญสหรัฐฯ นอกจากนี้ยังส่งผลกระทบให้การพัฒนาชะงักลง

ในภูมิภาคเอเชีย การพัฒนาเขตเมืองอย่างรวดเร็วผนวกกับการวางผังเมืองยังไม่มีคุณภาพได้เพิ่มความเสี่ยงให้เมืองต่าง ๆ เป็นอย่างมาก โดยเฉพาะเมืองที่ตั้งอยู่แถบชายฝั่งและลุ่มแม่น้ำที่มีประชากรอาศัยอยู่หนาแน่น พายุไต้ฝุ่นไห่เยี่ยนได้คร่าชีวิตผู้คนกว่า 7,350 คนในฟิลิปปินส์ เมื่อปี 2556 แล้วยังส่งผลโดยตรงให้ความยากจนเพิ่มขึ้นร้อยละ 1.2

Sekaranglah waktunya memperkuat pengendalian risiko bencana di Asia Timur dan Pasifik

Axel van Trotsenburg's picture
In PDF: Korean | Khmer

Setiap kali saya diberitahu terjadinya kembali sebuah bencana alam – tentang korban jiwa masyarakat, rumah-rumah yang hancur, matapencaharian yang hilang – saya teringat bagaimana pentingnya kita perlu bertindak guna mengurangi dampak tragedi tersebut. Kita  tidak bisa menunggu sampai bencana kembali terjadi.

Pada World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction di Sendai, yang akan berupaya mencari penerus Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2) -- panduan bagi para pembuat kebijakan dan pemangku kepentingan internasional dalam bidang manajemen risiko bencana – peluang itu ada di tangan kita. Konferensi ini adalah peluang untuk menjadi tonggak penting dalam hal pengendalian risiko bencana dan pengentasan kemiskinan.

Biaya akibat bencana alam sudah sangat tinggi. Dalam periode 30 tahu, sekitar 2,5 juta korban jiwa dan $4 triliun hilang akibat bencana, dan hal ini berdampak pada upaya pembangunan.

Di Asia, urbanisasi yang pesat serta perencanaan yang kurang baik telah secara signifikan mempertajam kerentanan kota, khususnya perkotaan dengan tingkat kepadatan penduduk yang tinggi dan terletak di pesisir atau tepi sungai. Lebih dari 7.350 korban jiwa jatuh akibat Badai Haiyan  di Filipina pada tahun 2013, dan bencana tersebut secara langsung mengakibatkan naiknya tingkat kemiskinan sebesar 1,2 persen.

加强东亚太平洋地区减少灾害风险的时候到了

Axel van Trotsenburg's picture
每当我听说又发生了自然灾害——人员伤亡,家园被毁,生计丧失——我就知道我们必须要减少这些悲惨后果,而不是坐等灾害再次来袭。

今年在日本仙台举办的世界减少灾害风险大会将给我们这个机会。此次大会寻求落实《兵库行动框架》后续框架,为政策制定者和国际利益攸关方管理灾害风险提供指导。此次大会是为减少灾害风险和战胜贫困设立新的里程碑的一个契机。

自然灾害的代价已经十分高昂——在过去30年里人员和财产损失高达4万亿美元,对发展努力造成了巨大的打击。
 

Now is the time to strengthen disaster risk reduction in East Asia and the Pacific

Axel van Trotsenburg's picture
In PDF: Korean | Khmer

Every time I learn of another natural disaster – the people killed and injured, homes destroyed, livelihoods lost – I know we must act to reduce the tragic impact instead of waiting for the next disaster strikes.

We have that chance with this year’s World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Sendai, which seeks to finalize the successor to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2) that guides policymakers and international stakeholders in managing disaster risk. The conference is an opportunity to set new milestones in disaster risk reduction and fighting poverty.

The cost of natural disasters already is high – 2.5 million people and $4 trillion lost over the past 30 years with a corresponding blow to development efforts.

In Asia, rapid urbanization combined with poor planning dramatically increases the exposure of cities, particularly those along densely populated coasts and river basins. Typhoon Haiyan, which killed more than 7,350 people in the Philippines in 2013, directly contributed to a 1.2 percent rise in poverty.
 

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