Mengembangkan sebuah usaha bukanlah sesuatu yang mudah. Terlebih bagi perempuan yang memiliki suatu usaha, ini merupakan tantangan yang besar, khususnya ketika kondisi mereka miskin dan usahanya hanya cukup memenuhi kebutuhan sehari-hari. Di negara-negara berkembang, 22 persen perempuan tidak melanjutkan usaha mereka karena tidak adanya dana. Menurut Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, perempuan lebih rentan dibandingkan pria menutup usahanya disebabkan masalah keuangan. Sementara itu, simpanan pribadi merupakan sumber yang penting dalam pendanaan usaha, dan hampir 95 persen pelaku usaha menyatakan bahwa mereka menggunakan dana pribadi untuk memulai atau mengembangkan usaha mereka. Akan tetapi, perempuan menghadapi kendala tersendiri dalam menyisihkan tabungan mereka untuk diinvestasikan guna mengembangkan usaha mereka.
Robots will take over our jobs, disrupt our industries and erode our competitiveness.
Such were commonly expressed fears about advances in automation, artificial intelligence, and 3D printing – key representations of exponential technologies – during the inaugural Global Innovation Forum that took place in Singapore.
While robots continue to bear the brunt of public skepticism, participants at the Forum also expressed optimism about the emergence of innovations that could dramatically transform the quality of life for the poorest people in society, particularly in Asia, the region that was acknowledged by many participants as leading the pace of innovation around the globe.
Young people account for almost half of Papua New Guinea’s population and comprise a large part of the urban poor. In the capital, Port Moresby, an increasing number of young people are leaving school without the necessary skills for entry-level jobs.
The Urban Youth Employment Project (UYEP) provides disadvantaged young people (aged between 16 and 35) in Port Moresby with life skills and employment training to increase their chances of finding long-term employment, also the motivation to make a fresh start in life. To help meet immediate economic needs, the project is also providing temporary employment opportunities.
동아시아는 지난 30년 간 이어진 전례 없는 경제 성장 덕분에 전 세계 경제의 25%를 차지하는 경제 동력원으로 성장했다. 중국, 인도네시아, 말레이시아, 태국, 베트남을 비롯한 이 지역은 좀 더 노동 집약적이고 포용적인 성장을 이루어낸 덕분에 수억명의 사람이 극심한 가난에서 벗어나 더 큰 번영을 누릴 수 있었다.
이러한 성공에는 대가가 따랐다. 지난 해를 기준으로 동아시아 인구 중 1억명이 아직도 하루 1.25 달러로 생활한다. 약 2억 6000만명이 여전히 하루 2달러 미만으로 생활하고 있는데, 이들은 세계 경제가 악화되거나 자국에 보건 악재 혹은 식량난이 발생하면 다시 가난에 빠질 가능성이 있다. 이들의 불확실한 미래야말로 동아시아의 급성장이 낳은 불평등이 갈수록 커지고 있음을 보여준다.
이 지역의 소득 격차는 2008년 세계 금융위기로 말미암아 한층 가중되었다. 중국과 인도네시아의 경우 소득 격차가 악화되었으며 싱가포르, 말레이시아, 필리핀에서는 소득 격차의 정도가 계속해서 높은 수준에 머물러 있다..
Unprecedented economic growth in the last three decades propelled East Asia into an economic powerhouse responsible for a quarter of the world’s economy.
Hundreds of millions of people across the region, including in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, lifted themselves out of extreme poverty and enjoyed greater prosperity, largely because of more labor-intensive and inclusive growth.
The success didn’t come without challenges. As of last year, 100 million people in East Asia still live on $1.25 a day. About 260 million still live on $2 a day or less, and they could fall back into poverty if the global economy takes a turn for the worse or if they face health, food and other shocks at home. Their uncertain future shows the increasing inequality of East Asia’s galloping growth.
From my house in northern Quezon City, I drive more than two hours every day to get to the office in Bonifacio Global City, which is about three cities away where I come from, and two cities away from the capital Manila. It’s a journey that should only take around half an hour under light traffic. That is a total of four hours on the road a day, if there is no road accident or bad weather. It takes me an hour longer whenever I use the public transport system. Along with hundreds of thousands of Metro Rail Transit (MRT) commuters, I have to contend with extremely long lines, slow trains, and frequent delays due to malfunctions. This has been my experience for several years. Many of us might be wondering: why have these problems persisted?
I see it every time I come back to Honiara, Solomon Island’s bustling capital, soon after I arrive. Young people on the streets, wandering around in groups or by themselves with nothing to do. It’s the same thing my local friends and colleagues mention. Solomon Islanders also ask, “What kind of future lies ahead for our kids?”
Solomon Islands face new economic challenges and a rapidly expanding, youthful population. Seven out of 10 Solomon Islanders are under the age of 29.
In my 10 years of working in the World Bank, I have seen remarkable changes around me. In 2004, Emerald Avenue in Ortigas Center, where the old World Bank office was located, started to wind down after 9 PM. Finding a place to buy a midnight snack whenever I did overtime was hard. It was also hard to find a taxi after work.
Today, even at 3 AM, the street is bustling with 24-hour restaurants, coffee shops, and convenience stores, hundreds of BPO (Business Process Outsourcing) employees taking their break, and a line of taxis waiting to bring these new middle class earners home. Living in Ortigas Center today means that I also benefit from these changes.
Mongolia’s mining revenues are set to soar in the coming years, but here people talk about the need to save for the future.
Surely building infrastructure, educating young Mongolians, improving healthcare and creating jobs is important? Surely by achieving these development goals Mongolia is providing for the next generation? These are great questions. Mongolia must do these things. But they in turn depend on efforts to prevent boom and bust and provide financial assets for future generations. Saving some of the revenues in good times is part of effective natural resource management.