Syndicate content

Education

เพศสถานะในโรงเรียนไทย: เราเติบโตมาในแบบที่เราได้รับการสั่งสอนในโรงเรียนหรือไม่?

Pamornrat Tansanguanwong's picture
Also available in: English
ขณะที่ฉันรอสัมภาษณ์คุณครูท่านหนึ่งที่โรงเรียนในพื้นที่ห่างไกลในประเทศไทย ภาพโรงอาหารในช่วงพักกลางวันทำให้ฉันหวนนึกถึงวันเวลาในวัยเด็ก ระหว่างนั้นฉันมีโอกาสพูดคุยและถามเด็กนักเรียนสองสามคนไปพลางๆ ว่าโตขึ้นพวกเขาอยากเป็นอะไร เด็กผู้ชายคนหนึ่งตอบว่า “ผมอยากเป็นหมอครับ” และเด็กผู้หญิงอีกคนตอบว่า “หนูอยากเป็นพยาบาลค่ะ” คำตอบของเด็กๆ ชวนให้ฉันคิดว่าค่านิยมทางเพศนั้นมีบทบาทขึ้นในชีวิต เมื่อตอนที่เราอายุยังน้อยขนาดนี้เลยหรือ
 
ครอบครัวและโรงเรียนเป็นสถาบันหลักของเด็กๆ ในการเรียนรู้เกี่ยวกับบรรทัดฐานต่างๆ ของสังคม โดยเฉพาะอย่างยิ่งในโรงเรียน ซึ่งเป็นสถานที่ๆ เด็กๆ จะได้เรียนรู้วิธีการเข้าสังคม ค่านิยมต่างๆ และความสัมพันธ์ระหว่างบุคคล ซึ่งรวมถึงเรื่องเพศสถานะด้วย
 
ในความเชื่อของหลายคน โรงเรียนนั้นมีอิทธิพลอย่างสูงในการสร้างค่านิยมเรื่องเพศ และที่ผ่านมานั้นงานวิจัยเชิงประจักษ์ในประเทศไทยยังมีไม่มากพอที่จะสร้างความเข้าใจที่ดีเกี่ยวกับประเด็นนี้
 
ในปีที่ผ่านมาคณะกรรมการส่งเสริมและประสานงานกิจการสตรี (PCWA) ได้ดำเนินโครงการศึกษา 2 โครงการ ซึ่งได้รับการสนับสนุนจากมูลนิธิร็อคกี้เฟลเลอร์ และธนาคารโลก เพื่อสร้างงานวิจัยเชิงประจักษ์ในเรื่องของเพศสถานะในระบบการศึกษาไทย โดยมีจุดมุ่งหมายในสนันสนุนหรือกำจัดสมมติฐานต่างๆ เกี่ยวกับเรื่องกรอบความคิดและอคติทางเพศว่ามีการการเรียนรู้ การสอน การแบ่งปัน หรือ การถ่ายทอดอย่างไรในประเทศไทย 
 

Gender in Thai schools: Do we grow up to be what we are taught?

Pamornrat Tansanguanwong's picture
Also available in: ภาษาไทย

Also available in: Français | العربية

While waiting to interview a teacher at one remote school in Thailand, the lunch scene reminded me of my childhood years in school.  I spoke to the young boys and girls asking them what they wanted to be when they grow up. “I want to be a doctor,” one boy said and “I want to be a nurse when I grow up” said another girl. Their answers left me wondering how young we were when our gender values formed.
 
Families and schools are the key institutions where young children learn social norms.   

Schools, in particular, provide the playground for children to socialize and work out their social values and relationships, including gender.
 
The impact of schools in forming gender values is believed to be high, but in the past there has been little evidence-based research in Thailand to generate understanding on this issue.
 
Last year, the Promoting and Coordinating Women’s Affairs Committee (PCWA) conducted two studies, supported by the Rockefeller Foundation and the World Bank, to provide evidence-based research on the gender situation in the Thai education system. It aims to help strengthen or dispel assumptions about how gender biases and stereotypes are learned, taught, shared and transmitted in Thailand.
 

Hành trình lớn với con: Câu chuyện của 2 người mẹ của trẻ Điếc ở Việt Nam

Huong Lan Vu's picture
Also available in: English
Được triển khai từ năm 2011 đến năm 2015 tại 4 tỉnh Hà Nội, Thái Nguyên, Quảng Bình và tp.Hồ Chí Minh, dự án “Giáo dục trẻ Điếc trước tuổi đến trường” – IDEO đã giúp cho 225 trẻ Điếc dưới 6 tuổi sẵn sàng đến trường bằng ngôn ngữ ký hiệu (NNKH). Với cách tiếp cận mang tính đổi mới này, dự án đã thành lập các nhóm Hỗ trợ gia đình gồm hướng dẫn viên người Điếc, phiên dịch viên NNKH và giáo viên nói đến dạy NNKH tại nhà trẻ với sự tham gia của gia đình. Hãy cùng chúng tôi theo dõi hành trình hỗ trợ con học NNKH của hai người mẹ có con sinh ra là trẻ Điếc.

A long journey with my deaf child: two Vietnamese mothers tell their stories

Huong Lan Vu's picture
Also available in: Tiếng Việt

Also available in: Español | Français

Implemented from 2011 to 2015 in Hanoi, Thai Nguyen, Quang Binh and Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam, the Intergenerational Deaf Education Outreach (IDEO) Project has helped prepare 255 deaf children under 6 years old for formal schooling by learning sign language. Using an innovative approach, the project set up “family support teams”, making up of a deaf mentor, a sign language interpreter and a hearing teacher, to teach sign language for the children in their homes, with their families. Let’s follow two mothers in their journey to support their deaf children speak with sign language.

Menyediakan dana yang cukup bagi sekolah di Indonesia

Samer Al-Samarrai's picture
Also available in: English



Tahun ini Indonesia merayakan satu dekade pelaksanaan Bantuan Operasional Sekolah. Program ini bertujuan untuk memastikan agar sekolah memiliki dana yang cukup untuk beroperasi, mengurangi biaya pendidikan yang ditanggung oleh rumah tangga, serta meningkatkan manajemen berbasis sekolah. Program hibah sekolah ini berukuran sangat besar dan mencakup sekitar 43 juta siswa sekolah dasar dan sekolah menengah di seluruh Indonesia. Tiap tahun, sebuah sekolah menerima Rp 580.000 untuk tiap siswa sekolah dasar dan Rp 710.000 untuk tiap sekolah menengah pertama[1]. Secara total rata-rata jumlah hibah per tahun menjadi sekitar Rp 230 juta untuk tiap sekolah menengah tingkat pertama.

Sejak saya datang ke Indonesia, saya telah mengunjungi banyak sekolah secara teratur untuk melihat perkembangan BOS. Saya mempunyai kesempatan untuk berbicara dengan orangtua dari keluarga miskin tentang bagaimana program ini telah membantu menurunkan biaya pendidikan yang harus mereka keluarkan. Para kepala sekolah juga berbagi dengan saya tentang bagaimana BOS membantu mereka dalam banyak hal untuk memberikan peluang pelatihan yang diperlukan guru untuk meningkatkan proses belajar-mengajar di kelas.

Providing schools with the money they need

Samer Al-Samarrai's picture
Also available in: Bahasa Indonesia



This year, Indonesia celebrates the first decade of its school grant scheme BOS (Bantuan Operasional Sekolah). The program aims to ensure that schools have sufficient funds to operate, reduce the education costs faced by households and improve school based management. The program is huge and covers approximately 43 million primary and secondary school students across Indonesia. Every year, schools receive $50 for each primary and $60 for each junior secondary school student[1]. This translates into an annual grant of about $20,000 for the average junior secondary school.  
 
Since I arrived in Indonesia we have visited schools regularly to check on the progress of BOS. I have talked with poor parents about how the program has helped to lower the education costs they face. School Principals have shared with me the many ways BOS has enabled them to provide the training opportunities their teachers need to improve classroom practice. School visits have also highlighted some of the challenges the program has faced in ensuring funds are used transparently. In one school, the necessary public noticeboard displaying information on the use of BOS funds was pulled out from behind a cupboard and contained information that was a year out of date.

Maintaining momentum in Myanmar

Axel van Trotsenburg's picture

Myanmar is undergoing a historic transition. After decades of armed conflict and economic stagnation, the country is beginning to make important strides toward realizing its potential and the aspirations of its people.

Our engagement in Myanmar started more than 60 years ago when it became a member of the World Bank, soon after gaining independence from British rule.

Back in 1955, the Bank’s first economic report stated: “the lack of security remains a disrupting influence on the economic life of the country” while “the long term economic potentials are bright” on account of its moderate population growth and abundant natural resources. It also noted the importance of “encouraging private sector enterprise to improve the standard of living of the people”— these are topics that continue to resonate in today’s development discourse.

In the early 1950s, Myanmar’s GDP per-capita was comparable to that of Thailand, Korea, and Indonesia.  Like others in the region, Myanmar was coming out from colonial rule and a period of struggle. Sixty years on, Myanmar has a per capita GDP just above $1,100, less than one third the average for ASEAN countries and one of the lowest in East Asia.

The good news is that Myanmar has begun the catch up process. Major political and economic reforms since 2011 have increased civil liberties, reduced armed conflict, and removed constraints to trade and private enterprise that long held back the economy.

What can Laos teach us about organizational learning?

Naazneen Barma's picture
A collection of photos in the Champassak provincial office of Électricité du Laos shows the blue-shirted employees in action. Photo: Naazneen Barma/The World Bank
The hallways of the Électricité du Laos (EDL) provincial offices in Champassak Province are filled with posters bearing bar charts and diagrams illustrating the public utility’s remarkable success in delivering electricity to the country’s still heavily rural population.

It is easy to see that data is crucial to the agency’s operations. Sitting down with EDL’s employees and managers—all wearing the agency’s signature blue-shirt uniform with pride—it also becomes apparent that the science of numbers and the art of managing people have gone hand in hand at this agency. This combination has enabled EDL to make organizational learning a central pillar of the agency’s success.

Institutions Taking Root, a recent report of which I’m a co-author,  looked at nine successful institutions in fragile and conflict-affected states that share a core set of internal operational strategies. 

Developing the Youth Workforce in Solomon Islands

Stephen Close's picture



I see it every time I come back to Honiara, Solomon Island’s bustling capital, soon after I arrive.  Young people on the streets, wandering around in groups or by themselves with nothing to do.  It’s the same thing my local friends and colleagues mention.  Solomon Islanders also ask, “What kind of future lies ahead for our kids?” 

Solomon Islands face new economic challenges and a rapidly expanding, youthful population.  Seven out of 10 Solomon Islanders are under the age of 29. 

Việt Nam: Một kỳ thi quốc gia có đánh giá được hết năng lực học sinh?

An Thi My Tran's picture
Also available in: English
Học sinh Việt Nam tham dự kỳ thi tốt nghiệp trung học phổ thông.
Photo: Van Chung/World Bank

Sau nhiều tháng thảo luận sôi nổi, Bộ Giáo dục và Đào tạo cuối cùng đã ra thông báo về việc tổ chức một kỳ thi quốc gia chung để xét công nhận tốt nghiệp trung học phổ thông (THPT) và lấy kết quả làm căn cứ tuyển sinh đại học, cao đẳng.

Cho đến năm học vừa qua, học sinh Việt Nam vẫn phải tham gia hai kỳ thi riêng sau khi hoàn thành 12 năm học phổ thông: một kỳ thi tốt nghiệp THPT và sau đó là kỳ thi tuyển  sinh đại học, cao đẳng. Cả hai kỳ thi này đều có tính quyết định cao và tạo nhiều áp lực lên các em học sinh và gia đình.

Pages