This week, more than fifty donor governments and representatives of borrowing member countries are gathering in Nay Pyi Taw to discuss how the World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA) can continue to help the world’s poorest countries.
IDA financing helps the world’s 77 poorest countries address big development issues. With IDA’s help, hundreds of millions of people have escaped poverty. This has been done through the creation of jobs, access to clean water, schools, roads, nutrition, electricity and more. During the past five years, IDA funding helped immunize 205 million children globally, provided access to better water sources for 50 million and access to health services for 413 million people.
ในที่สุดก็ได้มาถึงประเทศไทยเพื่อฉลองรางวัลความคิดสร้างสรรค์ด้านการพัฒนา (Development Marketplace for Innovation) ด้านการป้องกันการใช้ความรุนแรงทางเพศที่เราได้รับจากกลุ่มธนาคารโลกและศูนย์วิจัยด้านความรุนแรงทางเพศ (Sexual Violence Research Initiative: SVRI) เมื่อเดือนก่อน ทีมวิจัยของเราประกอบด้วย คุณสุรางค์ จันทร์แย้ม คุณจำรอง แพงหนองยาง ผู้บริหารมูลนิธิเพื่อนพนักงานบริการ (Sex Workers IN Group’s - SWING) และ ดร. ดุสิตา พึ่งสำราญ นักวิจัยจากมหาวิทยาลัยมหิดลซึ่งได้ไปร่วมพิธีรับรางวัล ณ กรุงวอชิงตัน ดีซี โดยมี ดร. จิม ยอง คิม ประธานกลุ่มธนาคารโลกกล่าวและให้กำลังใจในการทำงานผู้ได้รับรางวัลทุกคน แม้ว่าวันนี้ที่เราได้มาอยู่ไกลอีกซีกโลก ณ ห้องประชุมของ SWING ที่มีสีสรรสดใสหากแต่ความรู้สึกมุ่งมั่นที่จะทำงานด้านการป้องกันการใช้ความรุนแรงทางเพศที่ได้จากงานรับรางวัลในครั้งนั้นยังคงอยู่กับพวกเรา.
I’m finally in Thailand celebrating our Development Marketplace for Innovation award from the World Bank Group and the nonprofit Sexual Violence Research Initiative (SVRI) to prevent gender-based violence. Just one month ago, our team members, consisting of Sex Workers IN Group’s (SWING) leaders, Surang Janyam and Chamrong Phaengnongyang, and Mahidol University researcher, Dusita Phuengsamran, were at the awards ceremony in Washington DC, humbled by the words and encouragement of World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim. Today, half a world away, at SWING’s colorful conference space, the passion for violence prevention that infused the awards ceremony is still with us.
There is a lot that development practitioners don’t know about the Pacific Islands. When it comes to the laws of these small island nations scattered throughout the ocean separating Asia and the Americas, most people outside the region know even less. Add the dimension of gender to the mix and you might be met with blank stares.
For many, the connection seems strange at first. What do gas and mining have to do with women’s economic and social empowerment, let alone gender-based violence? The reality is that in many extractive industries areas money from extractives flow predominantly to men. This can lead to adverse results: men have more say over how benefits are used; men have more access to related jobs, and the associated increase in available cash allows them to take second wives (which can in many cases cause violence in the home between wives); some men leave their families for jobs in the industry, while some use cash for alcohol or prostitution.
These changes and stresses – also present when the benefits from mining don’t materialize as expected - can increase the risk of family and sexual violence, especially in fragile countries like Papua New Guinea (PNG).
ครอบครัวและโรงเรียนเป็นสถาบันหลักของเด็กๆ ในการเรียนรู้เกี่ยวกับบรรทัดฐานต่างๆ ของสังคม โดยเฉพาะอย่างยิ่งในโรงเรียน ซึ่งเป็นสถานที่ๆ เด็กๆ จะได้เรียนรู้วิธีการเข้าสังคม ค่านิยมต่างๆ และความสัมพันธ์ระหว่างบุคคล ซึ่งรวมถึงเรื่องเพศสถานะด้วย
ในความเชื่อของหลายคน โรงเรียนนั้นมีอิทธิพลอย่างสูงในการสร้างค่านิยมเรื่องเพศ และที่ผ่านมานั้นงานวิจัยเชิงประจักษ์ในประเทศไทยยังมีไม่มากพอที่จะสร้างความเข้าใจที่ดีเกี่ยวกับประเด็นนี้
ในปีที่ผ่านมาคณะกรรมการส่งเสริมและประสานงานกิจการสตรี (PCWA) ได้ดำเนินโครงการศึกษา 2 โครงการ ซึ่งได้รับการสนับสนุนจากมูลนิธิร็อคกี้เฟลเลอร์ และธนาคารโลก เพื่อสร้างงานวิจัยเชิงประจักษ์ในเรื่องของเพศสถานะในระบบการศึกษาไทย โดยมีจุดมุ่งหมายในสนันสนุนหรือกำจัดสมมติฐานต่างๆ เกี่ยวกับเรื่องกรอบความคิดและอคติทางเพศว่ามีการการเรียนรู้ การสอน การแบ่งปัน หรือ การถ่ายทอดอย่างไรในประเทศไทย
Families and schools are the key institutions where young children learn social norms.
Schools, in particular, provide the playground for children to socialize and work out their social values and relationships, including gender.
The impact of schools in forming gender values is believed to be high, but in the past there has been little evidence-based research in Thailand to generate understanding on this issue.
Last year, the Promoting and Coordinating Women’s Affairs Committee (PCWA) conducted two studies, supported by the Rockefeller Foundation and the World Bank, to provide evidence-based research on the gender situation in the Thai education system. It aims to help strengthen or dispel assumptions about how gender biases and stereotypes are learned, taught, shared and transmitted in Thailand.
In August 2015, I traveled with colleagues to An Giang Province in southern Vietnam to visit beneficiaries of an innovative project that is helping 200 Cham ethnic minority women learn embroidery. Selling their embroidery, they earn incomes for themselves. We were inspired by the positive change that the small amount of money invested in this project is bringing to the lives of these women and their families.
This project, with funding from the 2013 Vietnam Women’s Innovation Day, supported by the Vietnam Women’s Union, the World Bank, and other partners - private and public - has helped improved economic opportunities for Cham women. All through the old traditional art of embroidery.
“This training and job creation project has helped a group of women get a stable monthly income of more than two million Dong (about $100), without leaving their homes. This means they can still take care of their children and look after their homes,” Kim Chi, a local female entrepreneur and leader of the project, told us. “Women participating in the project not only learn embroidery skills, which preserve Cham traditions, but also provide opportunities to share experiences in raising children and living a healthy life style, and support each other when needed.”
While we were all excited about the successes under the project, a bit more reflection reminded me that unless cultural norms which require Cham women to mainly work from home, are addressed, it will be hard for projects like this, no matter how well designed, to have a lasting impact in helping Cham women realize their full economic and social potential.
Tháng 8/2015, tôi cùng đồng nghiệp đến An Giang thăm các đối tượng hưởng lợi của một dự án sáng tạo giúp 200 phụ nữ dân tộc Chăm học nghề thêu. Những phụ nữ này có thể tự tạo thu nhập bằng cách bán sản phẩm thêu của mình. Chúng tôi cảm thấy rất ấn tượng trước sự thay đổi tích cực mà khoản đầu tư nhỏ của dự án đã mang lại cho những phụ nữ này và gia đình họ.
Dự án nhận được sự tài trợ của Chương trình Ngày Phụ nữ Sáng tạo Việt Nam 2013 và hỗ trợ của Hội Phụ nữ Việt Nam đã cho phép Ngân hàng Thế giới và các nhà tài trợ công và tư nhân khác hỗ trợ phụ nữ Chăm, tăng cường năng lực kinh tế của mình bằng nghệ thuật thêu truyền thống.
“Dự án đào tạo và tạo việc làm này đã giúp một số phụ nữ tạo được thu nhập ổn định, khoảng trên 2 triệu đồng, mà không phải đi làm xa nhà. Như vậy có nghĩa là họ vẫn có thể trong nom con cái và lo việc gia đình”, bà Kim Chi, một chủ doanh nghiệp địa phương và đồng thời là người khởi xướng dự án chia sẻ. “Phụ nữ tham gia dự án không chỉ học được nghề dệt, gìn giữ truyền thống của người Chăm mà còn có thể trao đối kinh nghiệm nuôi dạy con cái, tổ chức một cuộc sống lành mạnh và giúp đỡ nhau khi cần.”
Tuy rất phấn khích về thành công của dự án nhưng chúng tôi cũng nhận thấy rằng nếu các chuẩn mực văn hoá đòi hỏi phụ nữ Chăm phải làm việc ở nhà không thay đổi thì khó có thể nào giúp phụ nữ Chăm phát huy quyền của mình và phát triển đầy đủ tiềm năng kinh tế và xã hội của họ thông qua các dự án tương tự, dù các dự án đó được thiết kế và thực hiện tốt như thế nào.
Those unfamiliar with the fast growing emerging economies of East Asia are likely to think that governments in these countries let market forces and capitalism roam free, red in tooth and claw. That was certainly my impression before coming to work in the region, and generally that held at the outset of our work by the group of us that wrote a new World Bank report “East Asia Pacific At Work: Employment, Enterprise and Wellbeing” .
The report shows just how wrong we were. We could be forgiven this impression—many of us had come from assignments in Latin America and the Caribbean or in Europe and Central Asia, where the distortions and rigidities from labor regulation and poorly designed social protection are rife, and where policy makers cast envious looks at the stellar and sustained employment outcomes in East Asia.
Well, it turns out that although they came relatively late to labor regulation and social protection, many governments in the region have entered this arena with gusto. We were surprised to find that, going just by what is written in their labor codes, the average level of employment protection in East Asia is actually higher than the OECD average.
- Social Development
- Law and Regulation
- Labor and Social Protection
- Financial Sector
- East Asia and Pacific
- Solomon Islands
- Papua New Guinea
- Micronesia, Federated States of
- Marshall Islands
- Lao People's Democratic Republic
- Korea, Republic of