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Poverty

Ending poverty in China: A 20-year perspective from staff in the frontlines

Alan Piazza's picture
Also available in: 中文
This blog is part of a series produced to commemorate End Poverty Day (October 17), focusing on China – which has contributed more than any other country to global poverty reduction – and its efforts to end extreme poverty by 2020. Read the blog series here.
 
Since the beginnings of the rural economic reform process in 1978, China has played the lead role in the global effort to overcome absolute poverty. The World Bank has, since 1981, assisted China both in the country’s extraordinary overall economic growth and its tremendously successful poverty reduction program.
 
It has been a great pleasure and privilege to have worked with China’s Leading Group Office for Poverty Reduction (LGOP) since 1990 in their highly successful poverty reduction program. I have seen first-hand the complete elimination of the worst aspects of absolute poverty throughout all of China’s poorest areas. I have hiked into hundreds of poor villages throughout the uplands of western China, where in the 1990s it was common to find villages where many households had not achieved basic food security and most households and children experienced malnutrition, where most school age children would not complete elementary school and where there was no local access to basic health care. Homes lacked road access, drinking water, and other basic infrastructure. 
Alan with kids on the project site, Photo: Alan Piazza

中国减贫成就、挑战与展望

Chengwei Huang's picture
Also available in: English
这是纪念1017日国际消除贫困日的中国系列博客文章的第一篇,中国对全球减贫事业的贡献超过世界任何国家,中国正在全力实现到2020年消除极端贫困的宏伟目标。
摄影:李文勇/世界银行
中国减贫成就举世瞩目。1982年,中国启动“三西”专项扶贫计划,拉开了有计划、有组织、大规模扶贫开发的序幕。1986年,成立国务院贫困地区经济开发领导小组(1993年改称国务院扶贫开发领导小组),认定贫困县,确定扶贫标准,设立财政专项扶贫资金。1994年颁布实施《国家八七扶贫攻坚计划(1994-2000年)》,2001年和2011年,先后两次颁布实施十年农村扶贫开发纲要。三十多年来,中国贫困人口大幅度减少,贫困地区和贫困人口的生产生活条件及公共服务水平明显改善。
 

Ending poverty in China: Lessons for other countries and the challenges still ahead

Chengwei Huang's picture
Also available in: 中文
This blog is the first piece of a series produced to commemorate End Poverty Day (October 17), focusing on China – which has contributed more than any other country to global poverty reduction – and its efforts to end extreme poverty by 2020.   
photo: Wenyong Li/World Bank
China’s success in poverty reduction has attracted worldwide attention. In 1982, China launched the “Sanxi Program” in the poorest regions in Gansu and Ningxia, marking the beginning of planned, organized and large-scale poverty alleviation efforts nationwide. In 1986, the government established the State Council Leading Group of Poverty Alleviation and Development, identified poor counties, set a national poverty line, and created special funds for poverty alleviation. In 1994, China launched the Seven-Year Priority Poverty Alleviation Program that was designed to lift 80 million people out of absolute poverty within seven years from 1994 to 2000. In 2001 and 2011, two ten-year poverty alleviation programs were launched to continue the war against poverty. During those three decades, the number of poor people fell sharply, and living conditions and access to public services improved markedly in the poorer regions.
 

ឥឡូវកម្ពុជាគឺជាប្រទេសដែលសេដ្ឋកិច្ចមានចំណូលមធ្យមកម្រិតទាប៖ តើមានន័យយ៉ាងណា?

Sodeth Ly's picture
Also available in: English
កំណើនសេដ្ឋកិច្ចរយ:ពេលពីរទសវត្សបានជួយកម្ពុជាឲ្យក្លាយជាប្រទេសឈានមុខក្នុងការកាត់បន្ថយភាពក្រីក្រ។ ជោគជ័យលើទិដ្ឋភាពនេះមានន័យថាប្រជាជាតិអាស៊ីអគ្នេយ៍មួយនេះបានជំនះសង្គ្រាមស៊ីវិលដ៏អាក្រក់ ហើយឥឡូវត្រូវបានក្រុមធនាគារពិភពលោក (WBG)​ ចាត់ថ្នាក់ថាជាប្រទេសដែលមានចំណូលមធ្យមកម្រិតទាប។
 
ប្រព័ន្ធចាត់ថ្នាក់ថ្មីឆ្នាំនេះមានមូលដ្ឋានផ្អែកលើកម្រិតគោលដែល​ WBG បង្កើតឡើងក្នុងប្រព័ន្ធមួយមានប្រភពនៅក្នុងឯកសារឆ្នាំ1989 របស់ខ្លួន ដែលគូសបញ្ជាក់វីធីសាស្រ្តនេះ។​  តារាងខាងក្រោមបង្ហាញកម្រិតផ្សេងគ្នានៃការចាត់ថ្នាក់ផ្អែកលើចំណូលជាតិដុល (GNI):

 
កម្រិតគោល GNI កក្កដា 2016
ចំណូលទាប <$1,025
ចំណូលមធ្យមកម្រិតទាប $1,026 - $4,035
ចំណូលមធ្យមកម្រិតខ្ពស់ $4,036 - $12,475
ចំណូលខ្ពស់ > $12,476
 

Cambodia is now a lower-middle income economy: What does this mean?

Sodeth Ly's picture
Also available in: Cambodian
Two decades of economic growth have helped make Cambodia a global leader in reducing poverty.
The success story means the Southeast Asian nation that overcame a vicious civil war now is classified as a lower-middle income economy by the World Bank Group (WBG).
 
The new classification this year is based on thresholds set by the WBG in a system with roots in a 1989 paper that outlined the methodology. The table below shows the different levels of classification based on Gross National Income (GNI): 
 
Threshold GNI in July 2016
Low-income <$1,025
Lower-middle income $1,026 - $4,035
Upper-middle income $4,036 - $12,475
High-income > $12,476
 

Empowering Myanmar’s rural poor through community-driven development

Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez's picture
Poverty and isolation create a host of development challenges for Myanmar's rural communities, from poor road connections to lack of clean water and unreliable electricity.
 
Since 2013, the Myanmar National Community-Driven Development Project (NCDDP) has helped improve access to basic infrastructure and services with support from the International Development Association (IDA), the World Bank's fund for the poorest. The community-driven development (CDD) approach responds well to local development challenges, in that it lets community groups decide how to use resources based on their specific needs and priorities.
 
Implemented by Myanmar's Department of Rural Development, NCDDP now operates in 5,000 villages across 27 rural townships梙ome to over 3 million people梐nd plans to reach about 7 million people in rural communities in the coming year.
 
In this video, Ede Ijjasz and Nikolas Myint reflect on what has been achieved so far, describe some of the challenges they met along the way, and talk about plans to take the NCDDP to the next level.
 
Related:

Supporting inclusive growth in Cambodia

Victoria Kwakwa's picture
A Cambodian farmer. photo by the World Bank
A Cambodian farmer. Photo: The World Bank

Today, Cambodia is among the world’s fastest growing economies. Its gross national income per capita increased by more than threefold in two decades, from $300 in 1994 to $1,070 in 2015.

Strong economic growth has helped lift millions of people out of poverty.

The Cambodian people have benefited as the economy diversified from subsistence farming into manufacturing, tourism and agricultural exports. Poverty fell to 10% in 2013, from 50% in 2004. Cambodians enjoy better school enrollment, literacy, life expectancy, immunization and access to water and sanitation.

Ангилал ямар учиртай вэ?

Jim Anderson's picture
Also available in: English

Албан бус орчуулга.



Нэг жилийн өмнө Монгол улсын нэг хүнд ногдох ҮНО бага-дунд, дунджаас дээш орлоготой орнуудын босгыг давж, дунджаас дээш орлоготой орон гэх тодотголтой болсон. 1990-ээд оны удаан үргэлжилсэн хямралаас хойш бид хэр хол явсныг илтгэж байна хэмээн Монголчуудын зарим нь баярлаж байсан. Бас нэг хэсэг нь хөнгөлөлттэй санхүүжилт авах боломжид ямар нөлөөлөл үзүүлэх бол хэмээн бодлогоширч байсан. Харин бусад нь яг ийм орлоготой байж чадах уу хэмээн эргэлзэж байсан. Монголын гаргасан ахиц, дэвшил гарцаагүй үнэн боловч нийт хүн амын 22% нь ойролцоогоор 2.70 долларын орлоготой буюу үндэсний ядуурлын шугамаас доогуур орлоготой амьдарч байгааг бид бүгд мэднэ. Ийм статистик байхад “дунджаас дээш орлоготой улс” байна гэдэг юу гэсэн үг вэ?
 
Өнгөрсөн долоо хоногт Монгол улс бага-дунд орлоготой ороны ангилалд буцаад шилжлээ. Яаж яваад ийм юм болов?  Энэ чухам юу гэсэн үг вэ?

What’s in a category?

Jim Anderson's picture
Also available in: Mongolian



One year ago, Mongolia was designated an Upper Middle Income Country (UMIC) when the country’s GNI per capita crossed the threshold between lower and upper middle income countries.  Some Mongolians celebrated, seeing the designation as a reflection of how far the country had come since recovering from a prolonged slump in the 1990s.  Others wondered what it means for the availability of concessional financing in the future.  And others just wondered if it was accurate.  While Mongolia’s progress is unmistakable, we also know that 22% of the population lives below the national poverty line of roughly $2.70 per day—what does it mean to be an “upper middle income country” in the face of such a statistic?

Last week, Mongolia was re-designated a Lower Middle Income Country (LMIC).  How is this possible and what does it mean?

Dari bukti ke dampak: Menjangkau masyarakat termiskin Indonesia dengan sasaran lebih baik

Maura Leary's picture
Also available in: English



Bukti dan analisis, ketika dipakai dengan baik, bisa menjadi dasar membuat kebijakan yang efektif. Namun,  apa yang terjadi ketika sebuah laporan analitis dipublikasikan dan temuannya disebarluaskan? Pada kasus terburuk, sebuah laporan bisa saja hanya tersimpan sampai berdebu di lemari.
 
Sebaliknya, pada kasus terbaik, bukti yang kuat dan yang disiapkan dengan baik bisa membawa dampak nyata bagi mereka yang kurang beruntung. Belum lama ini kami berusaha mencari tahu bagaimana mempraktikkannya untuk kasus di Indonesia.
 
Bantuan sosial yang efektif merupakan sesuatu yang bukan saja penting untuk membantu masyarakat keluar dari kemiskinan, tapi juga untuk menjaga agar mereka tidak jatuh miskin. Namun sering kali program-program dengan tujuan yang baik tidak menjangkau mereka yang paling memerlukannya. Masyarakat miskin tetap miskin, masyarakat rentan tetap berisiko jatuh ke dalam kemiskinan karena guncangan,, dan ruang fiskal terbuang untuk program-program yang tidak mencapai tujuannya.

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